.. ayers in shaping the company, and one of their key responsibilities is to oversee the entire succession process. The Company has an effective management development program for the entire organization. It is comprehensive and its part of basic personnel program for the whole company. It is well understood by everyone throughout the organization. It tracks managers’ assignments, identify their development needs, and establish the career paths that will prepare them for higher responsibility.
The board draws on information from the management development program to evaluate each manager in relation to the qualities that everyone has agreed are important for the president. As Paul Moody (1983) mentions in his book, Decision- Making, that, given that a number of methods can be used to arrive at a decision, how can we determine which one to use at a particular time? Obviously, this problem relates to the importance of the decision. Hence a decision related either to the selection of an individual for a major management position or to a significant capital expenditure would require significant prior research. It is important that the board make sure that the succession process begins about four or five years before the president is expected to step down. This time frame gives room for maneuver if necessary, and that is important. The board has to identify candidates who could be moved to the top of the organization.
If there is only one real candidate to succeed the president, the president needs to go out and bring new people into the top ranks of the company – to get the pool of successors up to three or four strong candidates. Getting these new people established and reviewing their performance takes time, so the board needs to insist that the process start early. This requires great communication between board members, which does not seems to exist in this case. Often times the effective decision-making process in undermined because the board is passive, and board members are friends with the president. Mr.Zutshi, did not reveal his decision until he was 62, leaving almost no time for the board to select new successor.
There are many pitfalls in making an effective decision if the question is not examined from all perspectives. Certainly Mr. Zutshi and his friend on the board had strong opinions as to who should be the next president, and a strong difference in opinions is not unusual, and in some cases, it can be healthy. It is very possible that both Mr. Zutshi and the board member got caught in the confirming evidence trap because it is so insidious.
As Paul C. Nutt, (1989) notes in his book, Making Tough Decisions, that, barriers to improving decision making stems from clashes in interest, which can produce divisiveness and conflict. Decision-makers caught in such a trap find it impossible to systematically seek out and consider information that reveals what decision is about, let alone mingle chance information about future conditions with objective information to carefully compare alternative courses of action. It is critical to the whole organization that the president makes sure it is the smart choice. So Mr.Zutshi should put his decision to the test: * He should check to see whether he is examining all the evidence with equal rigor and should avoid the tendency to accept confirming evidence with equal rigor and without question.
* Get someone he respect to play devil’s advocate, to argue against the decision he is contemplating. Better yet, build the counter argument himself. * Consider the decision with an open mind. Is he really gathering information to help him make a smart decision, or is he just looking for evidence confirming what he think he would like to do? A first step in making a decision is to frame the question. It is also one of the most dangerous steps.
A poorly framed problem can undermine even the best-considered decision. When others recommend decisions, examine the way they framed the problem. Challenge them with different frames. The process should include all parties that are affected by the decision. When a consensus is reached, the decision can be easily implemented because people implementing the decision were intimately involved in the decision-making process. The disagreement between Mr.
Zutshi and the board member regarding who should succeed Mr. Zutshi has sabotaged the effective decision-making process. It is highly unlikely that the next president will be the best candidate, and politics will compromise the integrity of the decision process. Naturally, there are enormous implications for the economic health of the organization.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: In conclusion there are a multitude of factors affecting the quality of decisions made by any given manager that include but are not limited to: personality characteristics, experience, the context of the situation at hand, strategies used and critical thinking and analysis. It is only a logical conclusion that the manager will implement decisions with an enthusiasm and dedication that is equivalent to their belief they have selected the correct action for the situation. If Mr.Zutshi follows some of the simple steps outlined and avoids the pitfalls, he can and should have complete confidence in the decision made. Making decisions is a major portion of the manager’s responsibilities. It is an aspect that cannot be taken lightly nor can it be done in a hasty manner.
Decisions that are made with deliberation using different kinds of processes, however, can lead the department or company to better and/or more profitable operations. When decisions are indeed made in this manner, the manager should feel confident that he or she has made an appropriate decision and is the best option given the information available at the time. This does not mean to say that the manager will always make the correct decision; lack of information or situational changes can lead to faulty analysis. However, if the manager uses critical thinking and proven successful decision-making strategies, he or she can and should be confident in whatever action they have decided is appropriate. Bibliography Reference Drucker, P.(1967). The Effective Executive.
New York: Harper & Row Publishers. Moody, P. (1983). Decision Making.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Nutt, P.C. (1989). Making Tough Decisions.
San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers. Donaldson, G. & Lorsch, J.W. (1983). Decision Making At The Top.
New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers. March, J.G. (1994). A Primer On Decision Making. New York: The Free Press. Business Reports.