.. verything that surrounds them. Many of these ethical laws pertain to the work social and personal goals according to Truth. It was important for “N” to declare innocence because nothing evil shall happen to go against “N” because “N” has proven innocence. After the declaration of innocence it was vital for “N” to know the name of the Gods.
It was important for the deceased to know these names because the Gods lived on Truth. “Hail to you, O you who are in the Hall of Justice who have no lies in your bodies, who live on truth and gulp down truth in the presence of Horus who is in his disc.” Since the Gods lived on Truth it was up to the Gods to save and protect the soul of the deceased. That was the start of the introductory hymns to the Gods, which took up the first few chapters. One in particular is the Re, the Sun God. The ancient Egyptians considered Re as the creator of people.
That is conceivably why Re is the first God mentioned in the Book of the Dead. Another God in the first few chapters is Osiris. Osiris is the god of death and re-birth, underworld and earth. Primarily in the first few chapters are hymns and praises to Gods. The beginning of the book is a transition to what I feel is the most important part, the afterlife rituals. Starting at chapters twenty-one and twenty-two, the giving to obtain an afterlife begins.
One that stuck out to me was chapter two. This chapter is for out into the day and living after. “O you Sole One who shine in the moon, O you Sole One who glow in the sun, may Ani go forth from among those multitudes of yours who are outside, may those who in the sunshine release him..” This section from the chapter means that the Sole One, you; is being freed into the daylight. An additional chapter that was very interesting was chapter seventy-four.
This chapter talked about being swift-footed when going out from the earth. Part of the chapter reads, “I shine in the sky, I ascend to the sky.” This means to me that your passage to afterlife should be buoyant and easy. Many of the chapters were alike to one another in the middle of the book; however, each had a very distinct difference from one another. The book it seems to refer to how to obtain an afterlife. That starts out with the process of giving a mouth, magic, heart, or etc..
for Ani begins. One part of the body that is given is the mouth. The mouth would be open by Ptah, who was the human god the creator of Memphis would open the mouth. This part was fairly important in the book because “N” would be able to speak in the presence of the Gods. By this it also protects “N”.
“As for any magic spell of any words which may be uttered against me, the gods will rise up against it, even the entire Ennead.” Another section of the book that was fascination was the chapters about transformation. These began and lasted from chapters seventy to eighty. One of the main chapters in the section was the transformation from human to a divine falcon. In the chapter it indeed depicts the actual transformation from the entry to the passage out. In this chapter there was also a real dialogue between character, which I found to be odd considering it was only the second dialogue was used besides the beginning of the book. The falcon must be one of the most important creatures in ancient Egypt because of its mention if the Book of the Dead and its use in the Egyptian writing, hieroglyphics.
Another transformation is from human to crocodile. That is very interesting because there is also a transformation into a swallow. The connection between both is somewhat odd because a crocodile is supposed to evil and a swallow is a symbol of innocence. Those transformations are quite the opposite.
The chapters were very interesting on the transformations because it was uncanny to see what the Egyptians thought of some of the animals and birds. My favorite chapter of the whole book was the Hall of the Two Truths. The Hall of Two Truths is where a persons would and actions from their life get weighed. If the balance is even between good and evil, the soul is sent to an afterlife.
If the evil side over weighs the good side, then the person is sent to a bad place. The person must actually ask, “Do you know the names of the upper and lower portions of the doors?” This I think means have you weighed my good and evil. Then the person says, “Lord of Truth, Master of his Two Legs is the name of the upper portion; Lord of Strength, the One who commands the Cattle is the name of the Lower.” These I think means did my good outweigh my evil. This chapter was the most interesting to me because it really described what happens at the hall of the Two Truths. The lives of the ancient Egyptians were based upon religious gods and texts.
The Egyptian Book of the Dead was perhaps the most important written record of the importance. It was essentially a book of praises and hymns to the Egyptian Gods. This book was one of the many ways to enter a complete afterlife. The Egyptian society heavily believed and based their lives on the Book of the Dead is on it phrases and hymns to the ancient Egyptian Gods and afterlife passage.
The rest of the book just ends with what it started out with, which were eulogistic praises to the Gods. Reading the Book of the Dead made me think more about how religious the Egyptians truly were. I think the Book of the Dead was in fact the key of their whole culture. If they hadnt believed so strongly in something their purpose of living might have ceased to exist because afterlife is what made them go on with their lives and essentially the Book of the Dead was the passage to their blissful afterlife. The Egyptians probably had one of the most influential civilizations in all of history and the Book of the Dead was one of the key elements that made Egyptians have such a strong era.