The film “In a Volcanoes Path,” was a good depiction of the devastation that a volcano can create. The movie also made me understand the importance of volcanologists. In studying the volcanoes maybe we can predict the next eruptions On January 3, 1983 the most active volcano, Kileaua, that lives in Kalapana erupted in a big way. Lava was shot 1500 feet into the air releasing 100,000 gallons per minute and taking up 400,000 cubic yards each day. Eight miles of roadway was lost to the explosion, the temperature of the lava was in excess of 1100 degrees Fahrenheit, which was burning objects before the lava actually hit anything.
The volcanoes rim actually fell in on itself forming a caldera or a crater. A lava pond was created 70 meters from the rim where the temperature was greater than 2000 degrees Fahrenheit. There was also a lava tube underground or also known as a lava river. The volcanologists were studying the lava in an interesting way, they were throwing a hammer into the lava attached to wire or rope. When they pulled the hammer out they cooled it immediately with water to not allow any other minerals to be formed.
On November 13, 1985 In Nevada Del Tolima Columbia Mt. Ruiese erupted. The problem however was not the lava burning down towns, but the lahars or mud flows from the magma melting the snow and ice. With a 50 foot high wall of mud 25,000 people died.
The town was actually 30 miles away from the volcano. This is why we need to have volcanologists, if there was some studying the mountain perhaps they could have saved all of those people who died In Iceland there is literally hundreds of volcanoes underneath the glaciers. At any time a volcano can erupt underneath and melt the ice almost instantly. This would create a glacial run or flood, and in October of 1996 it happened. One of the under glacial volcanoes erupted, this caused a three billion gallon flood of the countryside.
These volcanoes would probably be tougher to predict being that they are under glaciers but we should attempt to learn more about them so we can On May 18, 1980 at 8:32 in the morning Mt. St. Helens erupted. The eruption was triggered by a 5.2 earthquake. 60 people died in the eruption and the worst part of these deaths were they should have been prevented.
The volcanologists knew that the volcano was going to blow but stubborn people refused to leave and had to pay the price. The whole side of the volcano fell in creating a rock slide. Ash was shot 60,000 feet into the air, the effects were even as far as our backyard. By evening of the same day the volcano went back to sleep In 1994 in Mexico city, Popocatapeti rumbled into life.
What is considered the worlds most dangerous volcano has the potential to kill ten million people. In the British colony of Montserrat a volcano erupted on July 18,1996. The ash blanketed the sky for months afterwards. A Pyroclastic flow came down the mountain at 150 miles per hour.
They had to evacuate the 12,000 people that lived there, after the fact there are now only 3,200 people there. Mount Rainier which neighbors Mount St. Helen is another U.S. volcano that is expected to erupt soon. Most of the homes in the area are not high enough to escape the mud flows. The volcano has been dormant for a long time, this volcano has the potential to be the worst in U.S.
history. They have sirens set up for evacuation in case of In Japan they are used to natural disasters such as cyclones, earthquakes and volcanoes. They are the most ready for any catastrophe. They teach their children in school what to do in case of one of these natural disasters occur. The ring of fire is the string of volcanoes with the most violent ones on the pacific ring. there are also 400 active volcanoes on this ring.
Five percent of the world is located near volcanoes, but if all of them erupted the whole world could be krakatoa on the Indonesian Islands in 1883 exploded. There was darkness for two and one half days. The explosion was so loud that the Australians heard it. Greater than 25 hydrogen bombs the shock wave went around the world seven times.
On the Island Java there is a volcano known as Galungung which has killed 70 people. In 1815 Mt. Tembura released the most deadly volcanic event in history. There was no summer in 1816 due to the ash, and it snowed in June and Haimaey in January 1973 a mile long fisher started to spew lava the population of 5,000 people were evacuated everyone in the town went to the harbor where the water was boiling, this destroyed 400 homes. The lava started heading for the harbor and would have closed off these fishing peoples harbor completely had they not fought back.
The people brought in 19 miles of pipe, and pumped 4,000 tons of seawater an hour onto the lava flows. They reduced the temperature by 1500 degrees and stopped the lava from closing the harbor and destroying their vessels. Finally, six months later the other lava flows stopped, but this marks the first time a town fought back and defeated the volcano. In 1760 the common theory that was excepted was that the falls created the gorge. A man named Charles Lyle came along and said do not believe what the scriptures say believe what the stones have to say about the age of the earth.
He said it took 35,000 years to cut the gorge which disproved the scriptures. Scientists used fresh water snails for the aging of the falls, which is known as carbon dating, to 12,500 years. The crust is very strong so it can support the weight and it also grows 5 feet per year. The first person to measure the depths of the falls was Joseph Spencer he also found a huge pool that was 70 feet deep. The changes in the falls depths is related to the changes in the great lake system.
14,000 years ago a glacier retreated from the great lakes melting, this started the falls which started as a trickle. Using lasers you can get 3D of the river bed you can not get the depths because of the sediment in the water. Niagara Falls is considered the first real tourist attraction, 11 million people visit a year. Going over the falls in a barrel became a daredevils scheme. Fifteen people did the barrel trick and only ten people survived.
Edison realized that the falls can be used to harness electricity. In 1938 the Honeymoon Bridge twisted and swept away due to icing. In 1941 the first powerplant built on the falls fell in. The cave of the winds was rebuilt 74 times the falls was called a remansa or wild and volatile place.
People attempt suicide at the falls once a week every year there are 20 rescues from U.S. and Canada. In 1997 they trolled across the water using sonar and got the first picture of the bottom. 5,000 years ago the flow was one tenth as low. Even today only a portion of the water is flowed over. The International Dam control, preserves the falls and spreads out the waters.
In 1969 the falls were turned off by man, it took 10 million people to fix it and there was no guarantee. Eventually the falls will be I thought that the movie on the volcanoes was good and interesting, but for some reason I could not get into the falls at all I just did not find it as interesting, however I would in my life Bibliography: