Motivation and success in computer-science courses are also determined by students’ self-efficacy (SE) beliefs in their learning abilities (Ramalingam, LaBelle, and Wiedenbeck 2004; Rosson et al. 2011). Students with weak SE may struggle to be successful in a computer-science program (Beaubouef and McDowell 2008; Vivian, Falkner, and Falkner 2013). Weak SE beliefs affect students’ attention, engagement, and effort to successfully complete computer tasks (Hasan 2003).
Beliefs about one’s skills and abilities to regulate learning activities and master difficult and challenging specific tasks in ICT, computer programming or problem-solving (Hasan 2003; Wang and Neihart 2015) are referred to as computer self-efficacy (CSE) beliefs (Johnson 2005; Rosson et al. 2011).