.. porters accused them of making a corrupt bargain. Jackson was determined to defeat Adams in the election of 1828, and now he felt he had an issue that would help him win.
Jackson, again running for the Presidency in 1828 was determined to win. His followers attacked Adams (who was running too) of the corrupt bargaining he had allegedly made with Henry Clay during the election of 1824. Adams responded by attacking Jackson with his marriage affair (scroll up for more details) with Rachael Jackson. Soon thereafter, she died of a heart attack.Andrew Jackson was convinced it was the fault of Adams and his administration and never forgave them for it.
Andrew Jackson, as president was very similar, in his ideals with those of Thomas Jefferson. Both Jackson and Jefferson represented the common man. Both Jackson and Jefferson hated a bank of the United States. However, there were some significant differences.
Thomas Jefferson believed the representation of the poor (the common man) by the rule of the rich. That is, the rich, who were more educated and more suited for politics were to run the government in favor for the poor. However, Jackson believed the rule of the poor representing themselves. Jackson was the first president that practiced the spoil system to the fartest degree.
His cabinet, called the Kitchen Cabinet (it was alleged to have met in the kitchen) comprised mostly of his friends – some having no experience in politics. At times, it was not the loyality towards the party as a whole, but the loyalty towards Andrew Jackson governed who was chosen or not. As president, Jackson supported Georgia in its effort to deprive the Cherokee nation of its land. Jackson claimed that he had no power to oppose the exercise of sovereignty of any state over all who may be within its limits. The Cherokee appealed to the Supreme Court, and in Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled against Georgia.
Marshall stated that the federal government had exclusive jurisdiction over Native American lands. To this Jackson is said to have replied, John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it. Of course the court had no enforcement power of its own, so the decision was ignored. Within a few years most of the Cherokee were removed in a 1285-km (800-mi) forced march, during which thousands of them died. In 1834 the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) was created as a permanent homeland for the Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River.
By the end of Jackson’s second administration the army had forcefully moved most of these eastern tribes to their new home. The Black Hawk War of 1832 and the Seminole War that was renewed in 1835 represented the last efforts of the eastern Native Americans to retain their ancestral lands. Henry Clay called Jackson’s Native American policy a stain on the nation’s honor. However, Jackson’s antipathy toward these peoples was typical of the frontier settler, and because this policy opened more land to settlement, most Westerners supported it with enthusiasm. Jackson opposed renewal of the charter of the Second Bank of the United States.
Jackson objected to the existence of a bank that had a powerful voice in national affairs yet was not responsive to the will of the people. He contended that the bank benefited only the creditor, investor, and speculator at the expense of the working and agrarian classes that produced the real wealth of the nation by their labor. The financial procedures of the commercial or moneyed class, he said, created a boom-and-bust economic cycle. When the economy was booming, the creditor was rewarded with a large financial return on his investments. When depression came, credit became scarce.
Workers and farmers, who were usually debtors, had no money to pay their debts and went bankrupt. Their lands and properties were then seized by their creditors. Thus, wealth became concentrated in the hands of a few. With wealth came power and the opportunity to reinforce this beneficial position by law.
The election of 1832 was a landmark in American History because it was the first time the candidates were chosen by party conventions. Among other issues, the Bank of the United States was the most important. The National Republicans supportors the Bank elected Henry Clay as a candidate while the Democratic Party elected Jackson to run for the presidency and Martin Van Buren as Vice President. The election was centered on the bank issue, and Jackson won a second term easily. He had 219 electoral votes to Clay’s 49.
William Wirt, who ran on the Anti-Masonic Party ticket, received 7 votes, and South Carolina gave all 11 of its electoral votes to its states’ rights candidate, John Floyd. The popular vote was 687,502 for Jackson, 530,189 for Clay, and 33,108 for Wirt. Before even Jackson entered his second term, South Carolina threatened nullification from the tariff of 1832. Jackson was a champion of states’ rights. However, in a struggle that placed the interests of a state above those of the Union, he always stood firm behind the supreme powers of the federal government.
Speaking out against nullification, Jackson stated:I consider, then, the power to annul a law of the United States, assumed by one State, incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted expressly by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent with every principle on which it was founded, and destructive of the great object to which it was formed. Jackson also pushed through Congress a force bill that authorized the use of federal troops to collect the tariff. The crisis was eased when, through the efforts of Henry Clay, Congress passed a compromise tariff in 1833 along with the force bill. As a last defiant gesture, South Carolina accepted the tariff but nullified the force bill. Jackson had preserved the Union, but nullification remained a great question. By 1836 Jackson was weak from tuberculosis and had no thought of seeking a third term.
However, he stubbornly continued with affairs of state and party, including ensuring that the party nominated Van Buren as his successor. Although he was eager to return to the Hermitage after Van Buren’s election, he grimly fulfilled the duties of his office until the inauguration the following March. The last day of Jackson’s presidency was as much a personal triumph as his first. Thousands came, not to see the new president but to bid good-bye to their beloved hero.