Sophist`s Philosophers 1.What beliefs did the Sophists challenge? They didn’t believe that gods and goddesses influenced behavior or absolute moral and legal standards. But that “man is the measure of all things” and truth is different to each individual. 2.What was Socrates accused of doing? What did he say in defense? He was accused of “corrupting the young” and “not worshipping the gods worshipped by the state”.
He said ” A man who is good for anything ought not to calculate the chance of living of dying: he ought only to consider whether..he is doing right or wrong.” 3.What did Plato say about democracy? Why? He preferred the government of Sparta. He believed that each person should pay service to the community above personal goals. And that when people have too much freedom it causes social disorder. And also people should do what they’re best suited to do. 4.What were Aristotle’s views on political science? He did not theorize about idealized principals of science but instead he analyzed their political structures.
He analyzed everything about them finding out the ups and downs and only then did he make a conclusion. 5.What is natural law? A universal moral law that , like physics, can be understood by applying reason. 6.What were Hobbes views on government? He believed that people should sign a contract that gives up their freedoms and live obediently under a ruler. They would be protected under a Monarch who would protect them by keeping their world peaceful and safe. 7.What were Locke’s views on government? He believed that government was based on a contract and that it is necessary to establish order.
He also believed that people in a state of nature are reasonable and moral, and that they have the natural rights to life, liberty and property. He also believed that people should have the right to break the contract if they feel that the government is treating them unfairly or that their rights are being violated. 8.What were Montesqueiu’s views on government? He had a liking to English government and promoted the idea of separating governmental powers. He believed that power should be equally divided among the branches of government: the legislative branch, which made the laws; the executive branch, which enforced them; and the judicial branch, which interpreted the laws and judged to see if they were violated.
He also believed strongly in the rights of individuals, and fought hard to enforce that.