The Book Of Joshua & Ruth The Book of Joshua Chapter 1 The book begins with the history, not of Joshuas life (many remarkable passages of that we had before in the books of Moses) but of his reign and government. In this chapter, I.
God appoints him to the government in the stead of Moses, gives him an ample commission, full instructions, and great encouragements (v. 1-9). II. He accepts the government, and addresses himself immediately to the business of it, giving orders to the officers of the people in general (v. 10, 11) and particularly to the two tribes and a half (v. 1215).
III. The people agree to it, and take an oath of fealty to him (v. 1618). A reign which thus began with God could not but be honourable to the prince and comfortable to the subject. The last words of Moses are still verified, Happy art thou, O Israel! Who is like unto thee, O people? Deu.
33:29. Chapter 2 In this chapter we have an account of the scouts that were employed to bring an account to Joshua of the posture of the city of Jericho. Observe here, I. How Joshua sent them (v. 1).
II. How Rahab received them, and protected them, and told a lie for them (v. 2-7), so that they escaped out of the hands of the enemy. III.
The account she gave them of the present posture of Jericho, and the panic-fear they were struck with upon the approach of Israel (v. 811). IV. The bargain she made with them for the security of herself and her relations in the ruin she saw coming upon her city (v. 1221).
V. Their safe return to Joshua, and the account they gave him of their expedition (v. 2224). And that which makes this story most remarkable is that Rahab, the person principally concerned in it, is twice celebrated in the New Testament as a great believer (Heb. 11:31) and as one whose faith proved itself by good works, James 2:25. Chapter 3 This chapter, and that which follows it, give us the history of Israels passing through Jordan into Canaan, and a very memorable history it is.
Long afterwards, they are told to remember what God did for them between Shittim (whence they decamped, v. 1). and Gilgal, where they next pitched, ch. 4:19, Mic. 6:5, that they might know the righteousness of the Lord.
By Joshuas order they marched up to the rivers side (v. 1), and then almighty power led them through it. They passed through the Red Sea unexpectedly, and in their flight by night, but they have notice some time before of their passing through Jordan, and their expectations raised. I. The people are directed to follow the ark (v. 2-4).
II. They are commanded to sanctify themselves (v. 5). III. The priests with the ark are ordered to lead the van (v.
6). IV. Joshua is magnified and made commander in chief (v. 7, 8). V.
Public notice is given of what God is about to do for them (v. 913). IV. The thing is done, Jordan is divided, and Israel brought safely through it (v.
1417). This was the Lords doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes. Chapter 4 This chapter gives a further account of the miraculous passage of Israel through Jordan. I. The provision that was made at that time to preserve the memorial of it, by twelve stones set up in Jordan (v. 9) and other twelve stones taken up out of Jordan (v.
1-8). II. The march of the people through Jordans channel, the two tribes first, then all the people, and the priests that bore the ark last (v. 1014). III.
The closing of the waters again upon their coming up with the ark (v. 1519). IV. The erecting of the monument in Gilgal, to preserve the remembrance of this work of wonder to posterity (v. 2024). Chapter 5 Israel have now got over Jordan, and the waters which had opened before them, to favour their march forward, are closed again behind them, to forbid their retreat backward.
They have now got footing in Canaan, and must apply themselves to the conquest of it, in order to which this chapter tells us, I. How their enemies were dispirited (v. 1). II. What was done at their first landing to assist and encourage them.
1. The covenant of circumcision was renewed (v. 2-9). 2. The feast of the passover was celebrated (v. 10).
3. Their camp was victualled with the corn of the land, whereupon the manna ceased (v. 11, 12). 4. The captain of the Lords host himself appeared to Joshua to animate and direct him (v. 1315).
Chapter 6 Joshua opened the campaign with the siege of Jericho, a city which could not trust so much to the courage of its people as to act offensively, and to send out its forces to oppose Israels landing and encamping, but trusted so much to the strength of its walls as to stand upon its defence, and not to surrender, or desire conditions of peace. Now here we have the story of the taking of it, I. The directions and assurances which the captain of the Lords host gave concerning it (v. 1-5). II.
The trial of the peoples patient obedience in walking round the city six days (v. 614). III. The wonderful delivery of it into their hands the seventh day, with a solemn charge to them to use it as a devoted thing (v. 1521 and 24).
IV. The preservation of Rahab and her relations (v. 22, 23, 25). V.
A curse pronounced upon the man that should dare to rebuild this city (v. 26, 27). An abstract of this story we find among the trophies of faith, Heb. 11:30. By faith the walls of Jericho fell down, after they were compassed about seven days. Chapter 7 More than once we have found the affairs of Israel, even when they were in the happiest posture and gave the most hopeful prospects, perplexed and embarrassed by sin, and a stop thereby put to the most promising proceedings.
The golden calf, the murmuring at Kadesh, and the iniquity of Peor, had broken their measures and given them great disturbance; and in this chapter we have such another instance of the interruption given to the progress of their arms by sin. But it being only the sin of one person or family, and soon expiated, the consequences were not so mischievous as of those other sins; however it served to let them know that they were still upon their good behaviour. We have here, I. The sin of Achan in meddling with the accursed thing (v. 1). II.
The defeat of Israel before Ai thereupon (v. 2-5). III. Joshuas humiliation and prayer on occasion of that sad disaster (v.
6-9). IV. The directions God gave him for the putting away of the guilt which had provoked God thus to contend with them (v. 1015). V. The discovery, trial, conviction, condemnation, and execution, of the criminal, by which the anger of God was turned away (v.
1626). And by this story it appears that, as the laws, so Canaan itself, made nothing perfect, the perfection both of holiness and peace to Gods Israel is to be expected in the heavenly Canaan only. Chapter 8 The embarrassment which Achans sin gave to the affairs of Israel being over, we have them here in a very good posture again, the affairs both of war and religion. Here is, I.
The glorious progress of their arms in the taking of Ai, before which they had lately suffered disgrace. 1. God encourages Joshua to attack it, with the assurance of success, and directs him what method to take (v. 1, 2). 2. Joshua gives orders accordingly to the men of war (v.
3-8). 3. The stratagem is managed as it was projected, and succeeds as it was desired (v. 922).
4. Joshua becomes master of this city, puts all the inhabitants to the sword, burns it, hangs the king, but gives the plunder to the soldiers (v. 2329). II. The great solemnity of writing and reading the law before a general assembly of all Israel, drawn up for that purpose upon the two mountains of Gerizim and Ebal, according to an order which Moses had received from the Lord, and delivered to them (v. 3035).
Thus did they take their work before them, and make the business of their religion to keep pace with their secular business. Chapter 9 Here is in this chapter, I. The impolite confederacy of the kings of Canaan against Israel (v. 1, 2).
II. The polite confederacy of the inhabitants of Gibeon with Israel, 1. How it was subtly proposed and petitioned for by the Gibeonites pretending to come from a far country (v. 313). 2. How it was unwarily consented to by Joshua and the Israelites, to the disgust of the congregation when the fraud was discovered (v.
1418). 3. How the matter was adjusted to the satisfaction of all sides, by giving these Gibeonites their lives because they had covenanted with them, yet depriving them of their liberties because the covenant was not fairly obtained (v. 1927). Chapter 10 We have in this chapter an account of the conquest of the kings and kingdoms of the southern part of the land of Canaan, as, in the next chapter, of the reduction of the northern parts, which together completed the glorious successes of the wars of Canaan.
In this chapter we have an account, I. Of the routing of their forces in the field, in which observe, 1. Their confederacy against the Gibeonites (v. 1-5). 2. The Gibeonites request to Joshua to assist them (v.
6). 3. Joshuas speeds march under divine encouragement for their relief (v. 7-9).
4. The defeat of the armies of these confederate kings (v. 10, 11). 5. The miraculous prolonging of the day by the standing still of the sun in favour of the conquerors (v. 1214).
II. Of the execution of the kings that escaped out of the battle (v. 1527). III. Of the taking of the particular cities, and the total destruction of all that were found in them. Makkedah (v.
28). Libnah (v. 29, 30). Lachish (v. 31, 32) and the king of Gezer that attempted its rescue (v.
33). Eglon (v. 34, 35). Hebron (v. 36, 37).
Debir (v. 38, 39). And the bringing of all that country into the hands of Israel (v. 4042). And, lastly, the return of the army to the head-quarters (v.
43). Chapter 11 This chapter continues and concludes the history of the conquest of Canaan; of the reduction of the southern parts we had an account in the foregoing chapter, after which we may suppose Joshua allowed his forces some breathing-time; now here we have the story of the war in the north, and the happy success of that war. I. The confederacy of the northern crowns against Israel (v. 1-5). II.
The encouragement which God gave to Joshua to engage them (v. 6). III. His victory over them (v. 7-9). IV.
The taking of their cities (v. 1015). V. The destruction of the Anakim (v. 21, 22). VI.
The general conclusion of the story of this war (v. 1620, 23). Chapter 12 This chapter is a summary of Israels conquests. I.
Their conquests under Moses, on the other side Jordan (for we now suppose ourselves in Canaan) eastward, which we had the history of, Num. 21:24, etc. And here the abridgment of that history (v. 1-6). II.
Their conquests under Joshua, on this side Jordan, westward. 1. The country they reduced (v. 7, 8).
2. The kings they subdued, thirty-one in all (v. 924). And this comes in here, not only as a conclusion of the history of the wars of Canaan (that we might at one view see what they had got), but as a preface to the history of the dividing of Canaan, that all that might be put together which they were not to make a distribution of.
Chapter 13 At this chapter begins the account of the dividing of the land of Canaan among the tribes of Israel by lot, a narrative not so entertaining and instructive as that of the conquest of it, and yet it is thought fit to be inserted in the sacred history, to illustrate the performance of the promise made to the fathers, that this land should be given to the seed of Jacob, to them and not to any other. The preserving of this distribution would be of great use to the Jewish nation, who were obliged by the law to keep up this first distribution, and not to transfer inheritances from tribe to tribe, Num. 36:9. It is likewise of use to us for the explaining of other scriptures: the learned know how much light the geographical description of a country gives to the history of it.
And therefore we are not to skip over these chapters of hard names as useless and not to be regarded; where God has a mouth to speak and a hand to write we should find an ear to hear an eye to read; and God give us a heart to profit! In this chapter, I. God informs Joshua what parts of the country that were intended in the grant to Israel yet remained unconquered, and not got in possession (v. 1-6). II. He appoints him, notwithstanding, to make a distri …