THE GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT TRAINING OF POLICE PERSONNEL IN SILANG, CAVITE A Thesis Proposal presented to the Faculty of the Philippine National Police Academy In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Public Safety by Cdt 2C SITTI BENZONE Y. ALI Cdt 2C VICENTE M.
AMBAS Cdt 2C MAYCEE D. ANTAZO October 2017 ENDORSEMENT SHEET This thesis proposal attached hereto entitled, “THE GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT TRAINING OF POLICE PERSONNEL IN SILANG, CAVITE”, prepared and submitted by Cdt 2C SITTI BENZONE Y ALI, Cdt 2C VICENTE M AMBAS, and Cdt 2C MAYCEE D ANTAZO, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Public Safety, has been examined and is hereby recommended for oral examination. ________________________ Adviser’s Name and Signature Approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Public Safety, with a grade of ______. ________________________ Chairman ____________________ ____________________ Member Member Accepted as partial fulfillment for the degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN PUBLIC SAFETY.
PSUPT HORDAN T PACATIW Dean of Academics October 2017 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Title Page Title Page iEndorsement Sheet ii Table of Contents iii List of Tables v List of Figures vi 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND 1 Introduction 1 Theoretical Framework 4 Conceptual Framework 6 Statement of the Problem 8 Hypothesis 9 Significance of the Study 10 Scope and Delimitation 11 Definition of Terms 12 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES 14 Foreign Literature and Related Studies 14 Local Literature and Related Studies 29 Relevance of Related Literature and Studies 43 Synthesis of the Study 47 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 48 Research Design 48 Sources of Data 49 Population and Sampling Procedure 50 Data Gathering Procedure 51 Instrumentation 52 Analysis of Data 54 BIBLIOGRAPHY 56 APPENDICES 58 Letter request for the PNPA Director for the conduct of the study 57 Letter request for the Dean of Academics for the conduct of the study 58 Letter request for the Head of Office for the conduct of the study 69 Letter request to the respondents of the study 60 Letter request to the key informants of the study 61 Survey questionnaire to be used in the study 62 Interview guide to be utilized in the study 69 CURRICULUM VITAE 70 LIST OF TABLES Table No. Title Page 1 Distribution of the respondents 51 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title Page 1 Conceptual framework of the study 8 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction During the early times, women played minor roles in our society. They were considered of lesser power and rights compared to men.
As the liver of the humanity evolved, women slowly gained status in the society. In fact, according to the UNDP, National Bureau in Africa, 2016, with regard to Sustainable Development Goals today, global attention remains focused on promoting human rights and eliminating discrimination and inequitable outcomes for women, men, girls and boys. Gender equality is a result, the similar nature of appreciating the communities of mutually resemblances and dissimilarities among men and women, as well as the differential responsibilities that they play. Gender equality does not mean that men and women becomes the same. It means once privileges, liberties and prospects are not dependent on their sexuality.
Worldwide, women had been overwhelming disadvantage than men in many ways (Reeves and Baden, 2000). In the 1980’s further reflection in the development experiences of women gave rise to the Gender and Development (GAD). GAD represented a coming together of many feminist ideas. Gender and Development approach focuses on the socially constructed differences between men and women and the need to challenges existing roles and relations. GAD looks at the impact of development of both men and women. It seeks too ensure that both men and women participate in and benefit equally from development and so emphasis equality of benefit and control.
It recognizes that women exclusively, but with the way in which gender relations allot specific roles, responsibilities and expectation between men and women, often to the detriment of women. In the Philippines, efforts to make governance gender responsive are promoted through legislation, such as the Magna Carta of Women (MCW) which mandates non-discriminatory and pro-gender equality and equity measures to enable women’s participation in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies, plans, and programs for national, regional, and local development. The passage of Republic Act 7192, otherwise known as Women in Development and Nation-Building Act of 1991, has paved the way to several government measures geared toward empowering women and developing them as effective partners of men in national development. Thus, even in the Philippine National Police, despite its male-dominated structure, gender mainstreaming has become one of the major directions in policing derived from, among others, the formulation of action plans, improvement of client services, and enhancing the full capacities of women in policing. Anchored on the provisions of RA 8551 which also mandates the establishment of GAD program in the PNP, the National Police Commission has created within the PNP a GAD Focal Point, out of the Directorate for Police Community Relations. This GAD Focal Point has been tasked to initiate policy directions and translate into action what works in gender mainstreaming.
This mechanism, thus, recognizes the women, through a human development perspective, as an essential human in the administration and operations of the premier police agency. There are several government measures geared toward empowering women and developing them as effective partners of men I nation development. In the Philippine National Police, despite its male-dominated structure, gender mainstreaming has become one of he major directives in policing derived from, among others, formulation of action plans, improvement of client services, and enhancing the full capacities of women in policing. Despite the fact that Gender and Development is widely advocated, it cannot be denied that it remains hazy and misunderstood by many.
There is still a need to carry out strategic measures in order to achieve a truly fair, sensitive and responsive gender-based program within the Philippine National Police, specifically in Silang, Cavite. Silang Municipal Police Station serves the people of Silang, Cavite including the Philippine National Police Academy. Silang MPS has police personnel composed of both women and men. Thus, the study of the gender and development training of police personnel in Silang will serve as the basis for an enhanced gender and development training of police personnel. Cognizant of the above, the study will be undertaken to assess the effectiveness of gender and development training of police personnel in Silang, Cavite.
Lastly, this will benefit future researchers as basis and guidance with regards to gender and development. They can also use the findings of this study in the improvement of GAD policies in similar organization. Theoretical Framework The study is anchored on the Gender and Development (GAD) approach (Muyometa, 2000), which focuses on the socially constructed differences between men and women and the need to challenge existing gender roles and relations. This approach was majorly influenced by the writings of academic scholars such as Oakley (1972) and Rubin (1975), who emphasize the social relationship between men and women. These relationships, they argue, have systematically subordinated women.
Influenced by this work, by the late 1970s, some practitioners working in the development field questioned focusing on women in isolation. GAD marked a shift in thinking about the need to understand how women and men are socially constructed and how ‘those constructions are powerfully reinforced by the social activities that both define and are defined by them. GAD focuses primarily on the gendered division of labor and gender as a relation of power embedded in institutions. The GAD approach is not concerned specifically with women, but with the way in which a society assigns roles, responsibilities and expectations to both women and men. GAD applies gender analysis to uncover the ways in which men and women work together, presenting results in neutral terms of economics and efficiency.
In an attempt to create gender equality, (denoting women having same opportunities as men, including ability to participate in the public sphere; GAD policies aims to redefine traditional gender role expectations. Women are expected to fulfill household management tasks, home based production as well as bearing and raising children and caring for family members. The role of a wife is largely interpreted as ‘the responsibilities of motherhood’. Men however, are expected to be breadwinners whom are associated with paid work, and market production. In the labor market, women tend to earn less than men.
For instance, ‘a study by the Equality and Human Rights Commission found massive pay inequities in some United Kingdom’s top finance companies, women received around 80 percent less performance-related pay than their male colleagues.’ In response to pervasive gender inequalities, Beijing Platform for Action established gender mainstreaming in 1995 as a strategy across all policy areas at all levels of governance for achieving gender equality. The researchers use GAD Approach to understand Silang MPS in their policy making and gender and development training with regards to role assignment, responsibility designation and gender expectations. This study aims to understand the effect of gender and development in the local police station, specifically, Silang Municipal Station. The respondents will benefit from this study terms of gender awareness and improvement of their Gender and Development policies.
It will also benefit the researchers because this will help them in preparing themselves as future officers in the PNP. Conceptual Framework In accordance with the theoretical framework on Gender and Development (GAD) Approach (Muyometa, 2000), the conceptual framework of the study is designed, using the Input-Process-Output model. The input variables include the role assignment, responsibility designation and the gender expectation of police personnel in Silang, Cavite. The input also covers the gender analysis that GAD applies to uncover the ways in which men and women work together, presenting results in neutral terms of economics and efficiency. GAD polices aims to redefine traditional gender role expectations. The incorporation of GAD in the policy making of the Philippine National Police in Silang, Cavite is also regarded as input.
Despite the gender mainstreaming inside the organization, there is still misunderstanding about the role of men and women. The study aims to understand the effect of gender and development in local police station, specifically in Silang Municipal Police Station. Role assignment, responsibility designation and gender expectations composed the independent variables of the study. The aspects evaluated the dependent variable that is the gender and development in police station. All of these when put together in comparative framework made the model framework of the study. For the process, set of questionnaires will be used in conducting survey highlighting the impact or effect of gender and development.
Likewise, interviews will be facilitated by the researchers to gather relevant information from key informants who have highly knowledgeable of gender and development training. The data that will be collected will be analyzed through the application of the GAD approach theory and descriptive and inferential statistics. The gender and development training of police personnel is dependent on different aspects, namely, role assignments, responsibility designation and gender expectations. Role assignments focuses in defining the role of police personnel in the organization. It should clearly define roles of women and men in terms of policing.
The PNP is composed of many departments which performs different roles. Thus, men and women should have each role that will best help in the performance of the organization. In gender and development training, responsibility designation is also an intervening factor. Both men and women should perform their designated responsibility with utmost commitment. Not knowing each’s responsibility will affect negatively the organization. Gender and development training aims to raise awareness of gender expectations in police personnel.
At the end of this research undertaking, an enhanced gender and development shall be generated as an output of the processing of the input data. The stated output will serve as reference in future conduct of gender and development trainings of the Silang Municipal Police Station. IPO Framework INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Status of The Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel Problems Encountered in The Gender and Development Training Police Personnel Proposed Measures to Address Problems Encountered in The Gender and Development Training Police Personnel Assessment of Survey Questionnaires Analysis of Interview Results Statistical Treatment of DataEnhanced Gender and Training Development of Police Personnel FEEDBACK INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Status of The Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel Problems Encountered in The Gender and Development Training Police Personnel Proposed Measures to Address Problems Encountered in The Gender and Development Training Police Personnel Assessment of Survey Questionnaires Analysis of Interview Results Statistical Treatment of DataEnhanced Gender and Training Development of Police Personnel FEEDBACK 895350023621990012230099617220000 Figure 1.Conceptual framework of the study. Statement of the Problem The study aims to asses the gender development training of police personnel in Silang, Cavite. Specifically, the research work will seek to answer the following questions: How do the respondents assess the gender and development training of the police personnel in terms of:role assignments; responsibility designation; and gender expectations? Is there a significant difference in the respondents’ assessment on the gender and development training of police personnel relative to the abovementioned variables? What are the problems encountered in the gender and development training of police personnel relative to:role assignment; responsibility designation; and gender expectations? What measure can be proposed to address the problems encountered in the gender and development training of police personnel in relation to the abovementioned variables? What action plan can be developed from the findings of the study? Statement of the Hypothesis There is no significant difference in the respondents’ assessment on the gender and development training of police personnel in terms of role assignment, responsibility designation and gender expectations. Significance of the Study The study will be beneficial to the following stakeholders: Philippine National Police.
The result of the study will provide empirical data on the problems being encountered by police personnel in their stations regarding gender and development. This will serve as a review and further formulation of appropriate training strategies with regards to gender and development. Silang Municipal Police Station. The result of the study will asses the gender and development in the local police stations. Moreover, it will help them in developing strategies in conducting trainings on gender and development. Police-Commissioned Officers (PCOs).
The findings of the study will raise awareness of PCOs on the gender and development of their assignments. Furthermore, it will guide them on formulating training strategies for their personnel. Police Non-commissioned Officer (PNCOs). The research output will evaluate the gender and development of PNCOs and will guide them on performing their duties and responsibilities with gender sensitivity. Researchers. The study will provide an opportunity for the proponents to apply their learnings.
Also, the study will help in fulfilling the requirements of the course. The research will also give them an idea on how they would incorporate gender and development trainings on their future assignments as commissioned officers. Future Researchers. The findings of the study may serve as reference for future researchers on similar study focus. It will also guide other researchers on gender and development studies.
Scope and Delimitation The study will focus on fender and development training of police personnel. Specifically, the research work will deal with the role assignment, responsibility designation and gender expectation of the Philippine National Police. In the study the role of men and women in policing system. It seeks to prove that men and women are both essential element of enforcing the law especially in Silang Municipal Station.
That once performance does not depend on their sexuality. The research setting will be the Silang Municipal Station. It is located at Silang Bayan, Silang Cavite. The municipal police station is 25.5 km away from the Philippine National Police Academy via Sta. Rosa road.
It takes 38 minutes’ travel utilizing public utility vehicles. It is situated where people of Silang Cavite could easily visit. The research respondents will be composed of two groups, the Police Personnel and the local government officials. Police personnel refers to Police commissioned Officer and Police Non-Commissioned Officer who are currently assigned at Silang Municipal Police Station.
On the other hand, local government officials refer to the members of the Sangguniang members of Silang Municipality, who will represent the community. The study will be using the stratified random sampling as probability sampling strategy. Two groups will be derived from the actual respondents for this study. The two groups are composed of the police personnel and local government officials.
The scope of the study of the researchers will be in Silang Cavite. Although the Philippine National Police Academy is located in Silang, the researchers’ actions are limited due to the regimented way of living in the academy. The researchers’ time and financial matters are limited and constrained. These constraints resulted to have a researcher administered survey method.
The study will be conducted from June 2017 – March 2018 for completion of the study. Definition of Terms Enhanced gender and development training of police personnel refers to the final output of this research as the improved gender and development training of police personnel in Silang Municipal Police Station. Gender and development training refers to how Silang MPS train their personnel with regards to gender and development in the performance of their daily functions. Gender expectation refers to the anticipated roles of uniformed men and women as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite.
Measures refer to the proposed recommendations to address problems in the gender and development training of police personnel in Silang, Cavite. Personnel pertain to all uniformed personnel, commissioned or non-commissioned, who are currently assigned in Silang, Cavite. Problems refer to the difficulties in encountered of police personnel in Silang, Cavite with regards to gender and development training. Responsibility designation refers to the different responsibility designated to police personnel as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite.
Role assignment refers to the function assumed by police personnel as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite. Status refers to the state or condition with respect to gender and development training of police personnel in Silang, Cavite. Acronyms DILG-Department of Interior and Local Government GAD-Gender and Development LGU-Local Government Unit MPS-Municipal Police Station PCO-Police Commissioned Officer PNCO-Police Non-commissioned Officer PNP-Philippine National Police CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Foreign Literature and Related Studies Gender and Development Approach Muyometa (2000) emphasized that Gender and Development looks at the impact of development on both women and men. It seeks to ensure that both women and men participate in and benefit equally from development and so emphasizes equality of benefit and control. It recognizes that women may be involved in development, but not necessarily benefit from it. GAD is not concerned with women exclusively, but with the way in which gender relations allot specific roles, responsibilities and expectations between men and women, often to the detriment of women.
Development, therefore, is about deep and important changes to relations dealing with gender inequality within society. This approach also pays particular attention to the oppression of women in the family or the ‘private sphere’ of women’s lives. As a result, we have seen projects develop addressing issues such as violence against women. Gender and Development Lewis (1998) stated that when women’s right are included in a national constitution, they become part of a country’s baseline for rights protection and Government obligation.
The ways in which constitution incorporate women’s human rights vary a great deal from country to country. Some constitution makes ratified international treaties covenants part of national law. Other constitution includes explicit guarantees or gender equality , and women’s non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have done important work since the ratification of the convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women in 1979. Marquez (2010) noted in Latin Africa that the advance new Legislation and constitutional reforms on women’s right are paving the way for equal opportunities for women and Caribbean.
But application and enforcement remain a distant goal. The gap between paper promises and reality has a very real impact on the daily lives of millions of women in this region, “where poverty has a women’s face” in the words of Laura Chinchilla, who is about to become the first female president of Costa Rica. Martin (1989) cited that examination of women in policing found that women are considered only tokens for male police officers and they face performance pressure, isolation from co-workers, entrapment in stereotypic role, and tests of loyalty. She concluded that the future is not bright: “It is likely the dynamics of tokenism will continue to operate, leaving policewomen with a number of difficult choices in the face of the expectation that they think like men, work like dos and act like ladies.” Beneria (1995) stated that gender and development approach is the only one that considers the larger context of development policy as an isuue. The objective of the GAD approach was to remove gender disparities in social, economic and political sectors and to create a balance between men and women as a prerequisite for achieving sustainability development (Brydon and Chant 1989).
Hadad (1991), and Brown and Kerr (1997) cited that Gender and Development emphasizes the fact that all development initiatives will affect the llives of both men and women in some way, and as a result, consideration should be given to both gender and development planning. William (1994) argues that without attention to both the basic and strategic needs of Ghanaian women, gender equality will not be achievable. The development problems facing Ghana have force policy makers to prioritize economic development issues to the detriment of gender equality and equity. However, efforts are being made by the government to correct the situation through an attempt to mainstream gender into all sectors of the economy, a process known as gender mainstreaming (World Bank, 1994). The recognition of the need for gender analysis in the development process has led to a further shift in direction, to move advocacies for the integration of gender concerns into the overall planning, programming and budgeting of all sectors and development initiatives (Chao, 1999), thus this process is known as gender mainstreaming. Gender mainstreaming involves a process in which both men and women participate fully in the decision making (Ghorayshi and Belnager, 1996).
It requires an on-going monitoring of the impact of development policies and programs on men and women and relies on gender analysis as a tool and analytical framework (AWID, 2002). According to Panuccio (1989), the practical implementation of gender mainstreaming requires some form of affirmative action or special initiative in order to promote the advancement of women. Thus such programs that recognize women as agents of changes become necessary as a means of achieving gender equality (World Bank, 2000). both gender mainstreaming and the advancement of women are complementary and mutually reinforcing. Kyasiimire (2003) emphasized that gender mainstreaming are interlink with community participation.
Equal representation by men and women in projects or activities is not an end itself as community participation only but rather a process toward gender equality. On general note, on her study, community participation and gender mainstreaming are terminologies that re not explicitly defined and centered as communities attending meetings and or giving, contributing locally available materials while gender mainstreaming seems to refer to numbers men and women involved in a project or activity. Various approaches have been used in defining and ensuring gender mainstreaming and community participation. In decentralization context, a lot has been tired out to achieve community participation and thus ensure community ownership of projects. Issues of operation and maintenance os a form of community participation have been seem to have a strong bearing on the sustainability of the projects and thus their success.
There may not have a general uniform approach to community participation, that caters for all the beneficiaries and approaches are likely to vary from organization and from intervention to another. Therefore, it is noted that ensuring community participation and mainstreaming gender therein is not a simple task and requires a lot of patience and flexibility to specific local context. Gender and Development Dugbazah (2007) contend that gender and development examines the social relationship between men and women have been subordinated and oppressed and recognizes that patriarchy and other social structure subordinate women. Further, she mentioned that gender is not immutable but also changes and in this sense, is both socially constructed through time. Stated also in these studies concepts evolves from women in development to women and development; to gender and development, and to gender mainstreaming, which denotes a particular era and each has different policy implications. Prior to the UN Decade for women (1975-1985), development policies and programs were considered to be gender- neutral.
Gordon (1996) connotes that policy makers did not distinguish between men and women in development. Development interventions were assumed to automatically benefit all people equally, men as well as women. The general notion of focusing on women separate from men some development projects has been accepted by a considerate number of governments of developing countries and international developmental agencies. Hardcourt (1994) contents that feminist researchers probed the issue of gender analysis, that it was realized that women and men benefit differently from development initiatives.
This awareness led to the idea of promoting the full integration of women in development (WID) efforts. The integration of WID aimed at higher returns for women in terms of increased output, greater equity and social progress. According to Momsen (1991) WID achieved a great deal in creating awareness on the status of women but much less in terms of concrete achievement in improving their situation. WID offers little defense against this reality, because it does not challenge the basic social relations of gender. It assumes that gender relations will change, as women become full economic partners in development.
The limitation of WID, led to the emergence of the women and development (WAD) in the second half of 1970’s. Benieria (1995) claimed that WAD recognizes the woman have always been important economic actors in their various societies. According to Gordon (1996), WAD implicity assumes that women’s position will improve, if and when international structures become equitable. It is evident that the underrepresentation of women in economic, political and social structure is still identified primarily as a problem. However, it is argued that this problem can be solved by carefully designed intervention strategies rather that more fundamental shifts in gender and social relations. Not surprisingly, many projects designed to support women when using this approach have not yet yielded the desired development result of gender equity.
Its limitation paved the way for a new approach, known as gender and development. The introduction of the concept of “mainstreaming gender” rather than integration of women into development,” lead to the shift focus from “women” to gender (Dessai and Potter). Rathgeber (1992) contends that this shift in perspective gave rise to the gender and development (GAD) approach, which emerged in the 1980’s as an alternative to WAD. Afshar (1991) emphasized that gender and development (GAD) assumes a holistic perspective of social organization and builds upon socially defined and constructed roles of men and women. Unlike sex, which is biologically determined, gender roles are socially constructed and change from socio-cultural context to another and across time (Burivic et.al, 1993). Discussions on different conceptualization of gender equality remain a contested concept.
Many feminists have been reluctant to define other gender equity as all end goal. Though, Ely and Meyerson (2000) argues that “Because we ourselves are limited in our vision of a gender-equitable state by the gender relations of which we are currently a part, we insist anticipating in any detail what precisely a transformed, end-state looks like and suggest instead that this process of transformation of resistance and learning- continues indefinitely and itself constitutes the gender-equity goal.” In her study, gender mainstreaming (GM) has had a significant influence on the design of the study and the empirical research incorporated with it. Gender mainstreaming attempts to change gender relation and improve equity outcomes. It has largely been developed with reference to public policy agendas, and developing techniques to institutionalize and document it within organization (Rubery, 1998). Walby (2005), Beveridge et al (2000), Rees (2005) and others have conceptualized gender mainstreaming as involving technical process such as gender disaggregated statistics, gender impact assessment, gender equality training, ad outcome visible. Gender mainstreaming is also described in this literature as a political process addressing the gendered barriers to participation, aiming to enhance the participation of women as well as men in processes of agenda setting and decision-making.
The importance of maintaining the visibility of gender issues for organizational change process is also noted among others. Issue relating to participation and to women’s voices are not unique to the gender mainstreaming literature, but rather have been central to every woman for their continuous struggles for equality and development as human. Newman (2011) stressed out in the study that social media inequality is organized around these differences in hierarchies were superior and inferior status in attached to men and women through stereotyping. Gender stereotypes contain status beliefs of different than which attached to the type of work each gender does. These stereotypes and status belief act as barriers to women achieving positions of power and to men assuming position of lesser of social significance.
By typing supposed innate traits to tasks, gender essentialism creates “occupational ghettos” which impede the crossover of men into female-identified jobs and vise versa. It has been observed that domesticity as an ideology is socially and culturally constructed and closely linked to patriarchy, subordinate/dominant hierarchical positioning in gender power relations, and an artificial private/ public distinction that render the domestic roles of mother, wife and house maker as key constructions of women’s identity in Africa. It thus seems advisable to target feminine as well as masculine stereotype s for change. The devaluation of women is deeply inscribed in the cultural norms within a gender hierarchy. There will be “greater resistance to change that involves men taking on traditionally female activities that to change that involves women taking on traditionally male activities because taking on “women’s job” typically represents significant losses whereas assuming male activities usually represents an improvement of status for women. A related argument is that both men and women have both deep interests in maintaining a clear and reasonable stable frame works of gender beliefs and stereotypes that define and differentiate who men and women are.
In this line of reasoning, gender is so deeply embedded in social relations and institutions that few people are likely to tolerate serious disruption to the basic system of ser labeling that underpins any gender system. Enhanced Gender and Development of Police Personnel Generally, in the past, all over the world, women have not be conferred the saem recognition in the police like men. The role of providing security had been traditionally associated primarily with men. However, this conventional perception has been chaging as more women are joining police forces.
Barlon and BArlon (2000), mentined that this trend first began in New York City in 1845, when women wave employed to work as guards in women’s prisons. Later they were employed to do office and administrative work, and as supportive personnel for males working in the police force. Butler and Winfree (2003) discussed that in New Zealand, female officers received lower salaries than their female counterparts. The immense discrimination experienced by New Zealand policewomen in 1940’s and 1950s. The salaries were 87% less than the salaries of male colleagues. In addition, policewomen were included in the first legislation that ensured equal salaries in New Zealand in 1948.
The most significant change on early history of policing, women were tasked almost totally support services, such as clerical, nursing, culinary etc. Role Assignment Stohr (1990) noted that it is not an uncommon practice for non-commissioned women police to work side by side with male police almost in the same capacity, but not accorded same occupational status. It is of interest to note that increase in the entrance of women generally into traditionally male-dominated professions lie police has affected their job performance (Bartol and Bergen, Volckens and Khiras, 1992) Nasser (2005) in her study stressed that although women’s participation in the police force steadily increased in the United States and Europe, their work conditions were characterized by discrimination and dismissal. The role of police that involved women, whether as victims or criminals. This view at woman’s primarily role ill law not only within society, among academics or male police officer not only within society, among academics or male-police officers but also among women officers themselves than.
Anemu (1998) reported that female police are more satisfied with their job than their male counterparts. Aremu and Adeyoju (2003) also found that women police who are mentioned have been better job satisfaction than their male counterparts. Laurich and Stohr (1993) reported that there is a basic congruence between male and female police perceptions of their job satisfaction, job environment and commitment to the workplace. The studies of Cullen, Link, Wolfe and Frrank showed that women police have the same level of job satisfaction like their male counterparts. Kres (1982) submitted that women policies’ major sources of difficulty are associated with sexual harassment, ostracism and the grudging tolerance of fellow male officers. Similarly, Wexter and Logan (1983) also made it known that women police do complain harassment and blatant auto-women comments on their job.
This Gutek and Morasch (1982) referred to as “sex role spill –over”, they then said that this might account to the observed rates of sexual harassment in various occupational groups, particularly in the military and police were obedience to order in unquestionably expected. Obviously, this situation affects the morale of women police. Brown and Campbell (1994) claimed that the absence of friendly and helpful co-worker does adversely affect women police than their male counterparts. Responsibility Designation Blan and Ferber (1992) averred that discrimination results from a perception that woman does not “fit in” the group as well as a man does.
Women are less preferred because of their gender, which automatically carries with it traditionally nurtured stereotypes. To venture outside the feminine splere is to face sanctions from existing institutions. Women who are equally qualified with men are treated differently solely on the basis of gender. Dona Schaper (1997) writes about her experience when she took a group of teenagers on a tour of the police department. The police officer guiding them said that the real reason women couldn’t be on the police force was that they could never pass basic training which required carrying a 100-pound bag of sand in a straight line for 100 feet.
One of the criticisms of women who want to enter policing is that they lack skill to perform well as police officers. A large amount of research was done to evaluate the performance of women police officers. These studies were conducted for Washington DC, New York, Denver, Colorado, newton, Massachusetts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the California State Highway Patrol; and St Louis Country, Missauri (lord, 1995) in those studies, as well as move recent ones, researchers consistently demonstrated that woman can handle the crime fighting, rescue, combat, peacekeeping and social service aspects of police work as well as men, regardless of differences in biological constitution and socialization practices (1980). A lingering question in the minds of many mate officers is whether female officers can handle patrol duties as well as male officers. Although some gender differences were found, all but the second phase of the Philadelphia study fund that men and women are equally capable of patrol work (Martin and Junk, 1995). This study also generally indicate the men are in no more danger with women as partners than with men as partners ( Feinman, 1986).
Belknap and Shelly’s (1992) research supported Kanter’s theory regarding are aspect of tokenism-visibility-because they found that the most” consistent characteristic related to policemen’s perception and experiences as well as the percentage of women in the department.” Gender Expectation Wertsch’s(1998) study examined the issue of woman police officers and tokenism among one group f female officers employed in a medium-sized Pacific Northwest City of the twenty-four female officers in that department, sixteen agreed to be interviewed. She found tokenism, when combined with such factors as family commitments and organizational structures, plays a major role in determining upward mobility and serving to reduce the frequency of women’s promotion to supervisory positions in police departments. According to this study, stereotypical categorization of the token into specific roles also created dissatisfaction and frustration. Difference occurred between male and female police officers in how they performed on the job. Policewomen were typically seen as showing more restraint in using their firearms and in managing family disturbances; as being more sensitive to citizen’s needs and using a more community-oriented policing style, and as using less sick time policemen generally had better shooting ability had superior and agility and required less assistance in making arrests (Lord, 1995).
The findings from Philadelphia study also reported that women officers were assaulted more often and sustained more injuries. Furthermore, some vehicles exist that women have higher turnover rates than men policing (Doemer, 1995). St. Pierre (2010) presents the importance of women police and military personnel in peacekeeping. She stated tat as women often represent more than half the adult population of a given society; it takes gender demographic of the country in which it is deployed.
Greater participation of women in peace operation is not only a normative requirement but an operational one, and deploying a higher percentage of women military and olce peacekeepers will not only help achieve gender equality in UN peace operations but will also have a positive impact on the effectiveness of the missions themselves. Filer et al (1996) described the extent of gender discrimination as difficult to accurate measure. Ehrenberg and Smith (1994) added that gender discrimination is widespread and persistent. Its persistence is the result of forces or motivations that are either non-competitive or very slow to adjust to competitive force. In policing, Belkhap and shelly (1992) stated that it has been one of the most resistant occupations to accept women.
Martin (1994) described the initial resistance as strong organized and sometimes life threatening. Warmer and Bartollas (2000) mentioned that the ressitance towards women in policing must ultimately be viewed in terms of the patriarchal society. For the past three thousand years, society has been based on social, philosophical and political systems in which men have controlled women. Men have used force, direct pressure, tradition, ritual, customs, law and language to determine what role women shall or shall not apply in this male-dominated social role, the female everywhere subordinated to the male. In policing, women had the “audacity” to desire enhance to an all- male occupation, one that male officers perceived to demand dominance, aggressiveness, superiority and power.
In addition to the cultural barrier of the wider society, it is thought that certain aspects of police work are unsuitable for women. First, it is believed that women “cannot cope with danger, do not command authority and should jot be exposed to degradation” (Warmer and Bartollas, 2000). Second, there is the fear that the introduction of women will undermine male solidarity, threaten their security and their self- image (Heidensohn, 1992). This could be regarded as the “porcelain policemen” argument, that is, male poloce officers are so fragile and delicate that they feel threatened and undermined, their solidarity shattered and their loyalty over-stretched by the presence of women (Heidensohn, 1992). Third, women officers must cope with norms that create a disadvantage in interacting with male officers.
Swearing and sexual jokes, it is changed are an inevitable part of police cultured and women should not have to deal with this “seamy” aspect. Finally, the argument for the exclusion of women is made that their lower status (in comparison with male officers) creates problems in arrest situations with both male and female citizens (Martin, 1989). Martin’s (1989) examination of women in policing found that women are considered only tokens for male police officers and “they face performance pressure, isolation fro coworkers, entrapment in stereotypic roles, and tests of loyalty.” She concluded that the future is not bright. “It is likely that the dynamics of tokenism will continue to operate, leaving policewomen with a number of difficult choices in the face of the expectation that they may think like men, work like dogs, and act like ladies.” Kanter (1976) claims that token women perceived themselves to be highly visible, attracting disproportionate attention to them. This often results, asserts Kanter, in dysfunctional performance pressures.
Aside from the gender discrimination and inequality, gender based violence (GBV) pervades the lives of many people around the world. During the opening ceremony of the Workshop in Botswana, delivered her welcome remarks,GBV is recognized as human rights issue with major health and economic implications. She added that GBV leave survivors and those close to them with devastating effects. Local Literature and Related Studies Gender and Development Barua – Yap (2003) recognized women’s gender issues as not mere women’s sector concerns — they are national, social, political, and economic issues affecting the national welfare.
They are vital core issues foisting comprehensively permeating challenges that significantly determine the quality and sustainability of development. Monsod (1994) once claimed that women can be considered the backbone of the economy. However, their contributions are often undervalued if not unrecognized. Such being the case, she argued that there is a need to “break the chain” of gender inequality. In doing so, each and every sector of the society should unite towards this common goal of providing equal opportunities to both sexes through concrete actions.
Caharian, et al. (2001) cited that the Philippine budget policy of allocating five percent of funds for GAD activities is a valuable advocacy tool and in catalyzing GAD programs. It has become the vehicle for bringing gender equality government agenda and public awareness, enabled more women in terms of number and capacities to be engaged in governance functions, and paved the way for more gender-responsive public programs and policy. Llaguno (1998) undertook an assessment of the Community Based Forest Management Program (CBFMP) in the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Based on findings, the conclusions of her study indicates that the presence of positive organizational factors palpably supportive of the adoption of the GAD framework in a specific program might not sufficiently ensure its genuine integration due to a variety of barriers, such as the novelty of the concept, contrary policies established over years of implementation, bureaucratic resistance and others.
Fantastico (2005) examined the Philippine GAD budget policy and found out that some of the issues affecting its effective implementation and monitoring are as follows: token compliance, non-utilization of allocated amounts, NCW’s lack of clout to sufficiently and effectively monitor the policy and the limited substantive focus. Abad-Sarmiento’s (2003) study shoed that the implementation on GAD budget policy slowed down due to lack of awareness, appreciation and commitment; lack of common knowledge or understanding of the GAD policy; lack of technical capability to integrate GAD; lack of continuity and monitoring system, especially when administration changes. According to Usana (2007) the future of humanity passes though the woman. The statement shows strong words which remain true despite the advancement of science and technology. One can very well describe the way in which, today, women are putting more energy in order that humanity may continue to be passed on. The development theory, known as Gender and Development or GAD, which also becomes a national framework towards women’s emancipation from the hardships of life could spell some very powerful agent to change current exploitation and oppressive conditions among women.
Damde (2002) states in his foreword in a book, Gender Sensitivity in the Court System, that equality before the law is one of the basic tenets of justice. Thus, like matters must be treated equally and only substantive differences may be deemed to have any effect on a given case. Courts are expected by the people to be unaffected by differences in social status, degree of education and even physical abilities. It is, therefore, disconcerting when the courts that are expected to be the paradigms of equality, themselves display gender insensitivity or gender bias. The effect is the same when the insensitive act or comment is made not by a judge or a court employee but by a lawyer appearing in court but who, nevertheless, receives no chastisement for the insensitivity.
Often, the offensive acts are deliberately made. Culture may be culprit in both instances. The legal profession has long been dominated by men, add to this the fact that only in recent years have women been accorded the appropriate recognition for their role in society. Tapales (2002) study identified the three (3) necessary ingredients in engendering governance national policies which serve as impetus for implementation in the grassroots; active and committed advocates at the local level; and local chief executives who are all committed to gender concerns. She added that the last one comes about not through orientation programs on gender for both male and female; there have been many of such in the last few years, but they are mostly attended by technical personnel. Siason’s (1998) study shoed that technical assistance, training and extension in the fishing industry in the Philippines have been designed to target only the male fisher, not mindful of the real situation in the sector where women are just as active in many spheres of fish production.
As cited by Cabrador – Calubaquib (2008), women have played a major role in the creation of civilizations in the past. The role of women in promoting international stability was acknowledged by the UN for the first time in October 2000 by Security Council Resolution 1325 of Women, Peace and Security. This call on all parties to ensure women’s participation in the peace process, form the prevention of conflict to negotiations and post-war reconstruction and nation building acknowledges that vital role that women can play in peace building; suggest that their conclusion is an important dimension of their processes and recognizes that it is their right to participate. In a study made by Depasupil (1999) politics is an issue of power, at whichever arena a person participates in.
Because the productive sphere is given pre-eminence in society, because women are viewed as the “weaker sex”, because their capabilities, whether in the home or in the public sphere, are not recognized, because men are traditionally assumed to be the heads of households and the organization, women do not share the same power and prestige, status and societal position as men. Whether in home, the community, the workplace or society at large, women are generally expected to play supportive roles to men and to accept a subordinate status, in all spheres of social life. Such a reality limits women’s participation in decision-making and the assumption of leadership positions, retards their full development, in this express even in a legal and the extra-legal discrimination. Subordinations is manifested in a variety of spheres.
In the home, the authority structure is generally based on male dominance where major decisions are male prerogatives. Commonly accepted discriminations of males like “haligi ng tahanan” are head of households, their witness to the ascendant role of the male sex family life. Even the phrase “under the saya”, negatively attached to man, emphasizes the assumed subordination of women. In a study made by Fernando (2002) entitled “Gender Stereotyping” state that the economic marginalization and political subordination of women are reinforced and created by a host of institutions.
The socialization process in the family, the educational system including career options for women, the portrayal of women in the media, the blindness of government programs, and the legal system to women’s needs, the teachings of various religions, all contribute to the further discrimination against women. Women are stereotyped from birth. Societal perceptions and values systems ingrain an image of women as weak, dependent, subordinate, indecisive, emotional and submissive. Women’s roles, functions and abilities are seen to be primarily tied to the home.
Training and work opportunities are extensions of reproductive functions. There are two very vivid pictures of women – the virgin and the vamp. These apparently contradictory models are interchangeably used wherein women are expected to be pure and chaste while at the same time women are created as sex objects. In a very real sense, women are trapped within these stereotypes which severely limits their opportunities to development, bare them to innumerable hurdles, and consign them to a fate that robs of the sight to be equal human beings. According to Hiponia (2003), women participate in socio-cultural and political activities in community affairs, church-related functions, civic activities, and political involvements. This produces a multiple burden because they almost single-handedly have to carry the burden of housework and child care.
The multiple burden necessarily limits every woman’s capacity to develop herself while affording men the luxury of concentrating concerns of their own in the public sphere. Vidal (2010), on Women Empowerment stated that the first Philippine Legislature was formed in 1907 and until the time that the Philippine Commonwealth was covered, the Philippine Legislature produced no woman member. However, there have been incredible changes in the people’s perspective on women. In the latter half of the twentieth century, women began to enjoy some of the rights men used to enjoy exclusively.
Article V of the 1934 Philippine Constitution extended the right of suffrage to women. By virtue of said mandate, then President Manual L. Quezon signed into law the Woman Suffrage Bill paving the way for Filipino women to have the distinction as the first women in Asia to be granted suffrage. Rayandayan (2011) admitted that it is not easy to manage a marginalized sector of society. She expressed here wish to be transferred to a post where she is able to directly oversee the welfare of female detainees of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP) and use here training as psychologist. She further stressed that women empowerment is about bringing out the best in a woman – the qualities and potentials that need to be developed and shared.
Our women are empowered and continue to be on the move, within and outside their homes, actively participating in the workforce, in the other sectors: education, politics, and as migrants locally and globally. The gender equality and women empowerment situation, however, is still far from perfect. So much more still have to be done, especially among the vulnerable groups not equally benefitted by the gains enjoyed by other women locally and globally. As women move further form home, to study, to work, across local or global distance, much remain to be achieved for women empowerment and gender equality. The progress of the Philippines in promoting gender equality could be analyzed from various factors, namely the capability of its National Women’s Machinery – the Philippine Commission on Women (PCW), the vibrant civil society, strong collaboration with international and donor agencies and decentralized authority of local government units in promoting gender local governance.
Linkages should be broadened between government an local authorities, NGOs, communities as well as international organizations in order to promote women’s status, narrow gender gap and achieve ultimate goal of gender equality (Thongsame, 2016). A recent report by the World Bank Group in 2012 emphasized that improving women’s access and eliminating unequal access to economic participation in Asia could enhance productivity in the region. In order to incorporate women into formal economic participation, the governments of ASEAN countries should take the initiative by setting out strong legislative frameworks against discrimination against women on employment together with policies strengthening women’s professional skills for wider accessibility in economic participation. The government has made attempts to incorporate gender concerns through the laborer code to address gender discrimination on unequal wages, re-numeration and biased accessibility to women (Women Empowerment Development, 2013).
Among the country’s many laws empowering women is the Women in Development and Nation Building Act of 1992, which mandates concerned government agencies to support programs and activities for women. The law guarantees that women benefit equally and participate directly in all government programs, while also seeking to eliminate “gender bias” in legislations. This led to the implementation of the GAD Budget Policy in 1995, requiring all departments to allot at least 5% of their total budget for GAD-related activities. Local government units and state colleges and universities were later on included. The budget may be used for education and capacity-building programs; development of gender-responsive data and information systems; women’s desks, shelters and health centers; livelihood projects, daycare and breast-feeding facilities among others (Rodriguez, 2015). Key mechanisms for attaining inclusive growth for women requires expanding employment opportunities and decent work outcomes for women to promote gender equality in labor markets.
Economic growth in the Philippines, however, has not translated into sufficient employment growth and the employment growth has not been inclusive for women. Generally speaking, there has been little improvement in gender equality in the labor market, as measured by the share of women in waged employment in the non-agriculture sector. In the Philippines, the estimated proportion of women’s annual earnings to men’s annual earnings stands at less than 60%. However, employment growth alone is not sufficient to judge whether there is a significant underemployment and a large informal sector.
Despite a variety of gender-responsive legal and policy initiatives, an assessment of the labor market in the Philippines reveals that although some gender gaps have been reduced, women still suffer from persistent gender deficits (Asian Development Bank, 2013). One of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) each country must achieve is the promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women. This goal is indicated by gender parity, participation in the labor market and parliament sector. Associating these facts in the country, it was only last April 2013 that the World Bank identified the Philippines as the leader in gender equality specifically in the fields of legislation, government and management (Arbues, 2013). Gender mainstreaming is a global strategy for promoting gender equality. Mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any legislation, policy or program, according to the International Labor Organization.
It is supposed to apply in any area and at all levels (Mananzan, 2015). Enhanced Gender and Development Training Lloren (2011), stressed that gender sensitivity training is an initial effort to show how gender shapes the roles of women and men in the society, including their role in the society, including their role in development, and how it affects relations between them. It is given to those who have very little gender awareness or none at all. For people in the government to appreciate GAD and eventually become its advocate, they first have to heighten their awareness of gender concerns and be willing to respond to gender issues. Virtucio (2017) emphasized that Gender and Development Training is not an “anti-male stance” nor is it “a battle of sexes.” Both men and women are victims of gender-based violence; Although statistically, an overwhelming number of victims are women. He further stressed the need to unburden our men by empowering our women.
By carrying the undue stress of being the sole provider of the household, the man is put under immense pressure to live up to society’s preconceived standards. But by providing an atmosphere where the wives and daughters feel free to pursue educational avenues and causes of their own. A future is created where the burden is taken of the backs of men, and is shouldered equally by husband and wife. Although many women are allowed to work, they are still expected to perform all daily duties of keeping the household, including child rearing and meal preparation. In the Philippines, efforts to make governance responsive are promoted through legislation, such as the Magna Carta of Women which mandates non-discrimatory and pro-gender equality and equity measures to enable women’s participation in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies, plans, programs for national, regional and local development (PCW, 2009).
Role Assignments Hega (2007) stated that in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry, labor is highly segregated. Men usually occupy high skilled and highly paid jobs while women are often relegated to less skilled, lower paid and less secured jobs. Women are concentrated in ICT-related services requiring routine, limited technical training and low skills. Liwanan (1991) and Roces (1992) mentioned that there have been traditionally differences in the power roles and boundaries between Filipino women and men.
Eviota and Illo (1992) added differences in economic participation. Similarly, Jocano’s (1990) description of the indirect influence of Filipino businesswomen in enterprise strategy formulation and implementation through their positions as either vice-president or treasurer of family enterprises is consistent with Roces (1998) descriptions of the indirect power traditionally exercised by Filipino Women in political arena. Lasam (2003) discussed the challenges of globalization and how these should be understood or even critiqued using gender lens. By gender, he meant the cultural, institutional and situational role, contribution and location of women and men in terms of access, ownership, and control of resources, decision-making and participation. Gender analysis is important because there is gendered division of labor; women and men experienced different development outcomes; and women and men have different levels of participation in governance and decision-making.
Responsibility Designation Tanchuling (1999) stated that women and men in an organization do not start on an equal footing. Women have more limitations and constraints than men because their current roles with the traditional gender divisions of labor. She added that in mixed organizations wherein women and men are members, organizational goals, policies, processes and structure could become critical elements that can aggravate the gender gap and discrimination within the organization. The presence of a relatively gender aware and organized group of women is critical in advocating and pushing for the women’s agenda within the organization. Santiago (1999) identified cases where men and women are equally qualified for a so-called “male job”, but employers tend to employ men rather than women because of cultural stereotypes.
Employers also tend to hire men particularly for high positions because men can devote much time to work since they are not expected to perform work at home. A study by Chant and Mcllwaine (1995) on women’s participation in the manufacturing sector in the Philippines, particularly in Mactan Export Processing Zone in Cebu City, reveals that while women largely comprised the workforce in these firms, gender stereo-typing of jobs/activities exist. Women tend to be heavily concentrated on labor-intensive sections such as assembly, post-assembly or finishing, and administration while men are engaged in more skilled jobs. Gender Expectations Gender expectations also vary in degree among different social classes within the same ethnic group. In Manila, the professional woman who walks home alone at night is more likely to invite social disapproval than woman who works the night shift in a food processing factory.
The religious teaching that woman’s place is in the home also finds more adherents among the propertied classes among the working classes who need both spouses’ income. In many societies, physical strength is less essential to the definition of maleness among the propertied and professional classes than among the classes which engage in manual labor (Eviota, 1994). Policewomen are expected to effectively manage cases related to women, family and delinquent children while their male counterparts are normally assigned cases with public jurisdiction. This kind of division of labor based on gender has been deeply censured by several female experts. They argue that the domination of patriarchal thought in a society determines, unjustly, the roles each gender will play within the society. In order to promote equality between men and women, barriers between the public and private spheres must be broken down.
Additionally, current frameworks should be re-evaluated to prevent the discrimination of both men and women within the various careers (Garcia, 2003). De Guzman (2004) mentioned in his study that the a lot of policewomen has been in difficult adaptation to a pre-dominantly male-dominated organization. Being traditionally dominated by males, the police organization may become a problematic workplace for policewomen. In a patriarchal society, women are placed at a disadvantage because of gender-related workplace problems that may arise. His study involved an assessment of the gender-related problems experienced by policewomen of the Philippine National Police in the central region of the Philippines. The data indicated that women officers experienced gender-related problems.
However, these problems do not seem to relate significantly to their job performances. The results indicated that women officers faced the greatest problems involving perceptions of their stereo typical roles, believing their physical capabilities were underestimated and given less challenging assignments or positions. However, they did not experience major problems in other areas especially in promotion, yet they believed that recruitment and selection criteria to the PNP tended to favor the males. Policewomen can potentially play a critical role in affecting policies regarding the protection of women’s legal rights as well as provide a supportive environment for the protection of women (Garcia, 2003). Reyes-Cantos and Bernabe (2006) acknowledged that women play very important role in accessing impacts to rice production. They emphasized on the need to ensure that policies for the rice industry must equally consider the rights, welfare, agenda and interests of the women farmers engaged in the production and cultivation of paddy.
In the same manner, policies for the Philippine National Police must be fair, just and equitable taking into consideration the human rights, interests, privileges, welfare and benefits of the women complements of our policemen nationwide. Women have made significant advances in politics. Though there may be several factors that tends to lessen importance like belonging to a political dynasty, the role of women in national and local decision-making can no longer be ignored and their competence, in some cases, suits up or even exceeds that of male politicians. The statistics on women remain indicative of the deep-rooted and widespread problems they encounter in their daily lives (Friedrich, 2000). Relevance of Related Literature and Studies After a comprehensive assessment of different studies on gender and development, researchers find out that almost all studies focused on women and their roles.
Moreover, the literature review and studies showed the gender challenges with police field in line of women in general. Policies were created also that have a great impact on gender and development of certain countries. Role of women in different fields where discussed and policies were being created and presented to uplift their rights that will help for the development. From the very beginning, Lewis (1998) stated that when women’s rights are included in the national constitution, they become part of the country’s baseline for rights protection and government obligation. The ways in which constitution incorporate women’s rights vary great deal from country to country. As cited by Cabrador-Calaquib (2008), women have played a different major role in the creation of civilization in the past.
According to Usuna (2007) the future of humanity passes through the woman. Marquez (2010) noted in Latin Africa that the advanced new legislation and constitutional reforms on women’s rights are paving the way for equal opportunities for women and Carribien. In application to field as how women work, Martiris (1989) cited that examination of women in policing fund that women are considered only tokens for male officers and they face performance pressure, isolation from coworker, entrapment in stereotypic role and tests of loyalty. Also factors of women performance in police field were contained in the review which is tokenism. Some researchers like Wormer and Bartollas (2000), Heidensohn (1992) and Martin (1989) believed that there are certain aspects in police works that are not suitable for women.
Relevant studies indicated that police women presents an importance in peacekeeping as highlighted by St. Pierre (2010). Monsod (1994) once claimed that women can be considered the backbone of economy. Today, women are putting more energy in order that humanity may continue to be passed on. The development theory, Gender and Development (GAD) becomes a national framework toward women’s emancipation from the hardship of life, could spell some very powerful agent to change current exploitative and oppressive conditions among women. Dugbazah (2007) contend that Gad examines the social relationship between men and women in which women have been subordinated and oppressed and recognizes that patriarchy.
The objective of GAD approach was to remove gender disparities in general for achieving sustainable development (Brydon and Chant 1989). The three independent variables: role assignments, responsibility designations and gender expectations are factors that emphasize on how women act in the field of p0lice. The advantages and disadvantages of having women in the field can be seen and analyzed. Role assignments should be focused on. According to Heya (2007), the labor should be highly segregated.
Men usually occupy high skilled resulting to gender paid jobs while women often delegate to less skilled resulting to gender discrimination or inequality. But we cannot avoid the fact that there are really differences in the power roles and boundaries between men and women. Lasam (2003) discussed the challenges of globalization and the differences between men and women in their participation in development outcomes and decision-making. Responsibility designations do not start on an equal footing (Tanchuling 1999). Women have more limitations and constraints than men. Santiago (1999) identified cases where men and women are equally qualified but employers tend to choose men because of cultural stereotypes.
Gender stereotyping of jobs exists. Women are stereotyped from birth. According to Hiponia (2003) women participate in socio-cultural and political activities in community affairs. This produces a multiple burden of housework and childcare.
Rayadayan (2011) admitted and stressed that women empowerment is about bringing out the best in woman-qualities and potentials that need to be developed and shared. Lastly, the gender expectations as mentioned by De Guzman (2004) in his study that the policemen have been a difficult adaptation to a predominantly male-dominated organization. Policemen can potentially play a critical role in affecting policies regarding the protection of women’s legal rights as well as provide a supportive environment for the protection of women (Garcia, 2003). Wertsch’s (1998) found tokenism when combined with such factors as family commitments and organizational structures plays a major role in determining upward mobility and serving to reduce frequency of women’s promotion to supervisory positions in police departments.
There are findings also that reported women officers were assaulted more often and sustained more injuries which causes employers to choose men over women. Even there are policies lifting the rights of women, there are still less expectations on women to the point that police work are seen as not suitable for women. Women have been conferred the same recognition in the police like men. However, this conventional perception has been changing as more women are joining police forces.
This is a sign that women can now joined in the field of work of men. Grosser (2011) also noted in her study that gender equality has been defined in many ways may it be in literature or by police makers. Arguably the central debate has been about whether equality is about sameness; treating men and women the same, as many liberal feminist approaches or whether it is essentially about differences. Synthesis of the Study Many studies were conducted regarding the gender and development.
This only means that it has been an issue that must be focused on. Extensive review presented more result of studies that discussed about gender and development. But still there are things that should be given emphasis. These matters would help the researchers on what more should be dealt with and improve the study with the past studies conducted. Gender and development has been an issue ever since.
Limited studies were done regarding the effect of gender and development of a certain field. Majority of the studies focus with the background of gender and development only, nothing more and nothing less. There are no facts on what is really he main tasks of women in a certain field especially with police works. This situation further calls more the urgent need to conduct a thorough assessment of the actual dilemma in lieu with gender and development. So, the researchers will deal with it through assessing Silang, Cavite Police Station as a decision framework for addressing the concerns.
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design The researchers will be using the descriptive research design. This descriptive research to be used is appropriate since the researchers’ study requires the gathering of information about the present conditions of the gender and development training in police station. This will also focus on description of the current status of the phenomena especially with regards to the police station in Silang, Cavite. The researchers aim to describe and assess the current situation of the said indicated matter, the gender and development. By having the application of designed research that is chosen, the descriptive research design, the researchers will be able to have the the data needed and make future revision to find the new truth.
Calmorin – Paler and Calmorin (2000) stressed that descriptive design focuses in finding the new truth. These truths may be in the form of increased quality of knowledge, new generalization, increased insights to operating factors, the discovery of new casual relationship, a more accurate formulation of the problem to be solved and many other. It is essential in providing facs which may use scientific judgment. Similarly, Salking (2003) pointed out that descriptive research or study describe the current state of the study of some phenomena. The proponents will use the descriptive research design to assess the respondents’ perspective on the gender and development training of police personnel. The said descriptive research design will serve as the main tool to gather data and information on GAD training.
It will be used to collect the feedback of the respondents. It will also be used to identify the problems encountered in the GAD training of personnel and the proposed measures to address those problems. Moreover, the said research design will evaluate the independent variables, specifically the role assignment, responsibility designation and gender expectation. Sources of Data The proponents will gather data through the use of primary and secondary data. The secondary data will be obtained from the files of different government publications that are interconnected to gender and development training. Also, files from our specific police station, which is Silang MPS, that are with relation to gender and development shall be collected and assessed.
With regards to our primary data, survey will be conducted using stratified random sampling from PNCO’s, NCO’s and LGU’s of our given municipality police station will be conducted. At the same time, interviews with the above mentioned will be done. The primary sources of the study will focus on two respondent groups. The two groups are the police personnel and the local government officials. The police personnel refer to the commissioned and non-commissioned personnel currently assigned in Silang MPS.
On the other hand, the local government officials refer to the Sangguiniang Bayan of Silang, Cavite who will represent the community. Theses two groups are essential elements as respondents of the study. The researchers will use secondary data for document analysis on the gender and development training of police personnel. The employment of secondary data will aid the researchers to assess and analyze existing documents in relation to the study.
Furthermore, the researchers will use primary data to obtain first hand information from the respondents’ input. The primary data will aid in identifying the problems encountered by the respondents. Also, it will help the researchers in formulation proposed measures to address the identified problems in the gender and development training of police personnel. Population and Sampling Procedure In the study, the two group of respondents are the police personnel the police personnel and the local government officials. Police personnel is composed of 40 commissioned and non-commissioned personnel. On the other hand, the local government officials have 160 members. To sum it all, there will be two-hundred (200) respondents in the conduct of the study regarding the gender and development training of police personnel. They will serve as the primary sources of data. The main sampling procedure used in the conduct of the study is stratified random sampling. The sampling technique allows the researchers to choose a sub-group from a larger group to serve as basis for making decisions or judgment about the larger group. Ensuring that different groups of a population are adequate, the sampling technique employed is stratified random sampling. With the use of the population size of the police personnel and local government officials from Silang, Cavite, the researchers found out that a total of 66.67 respondents will be needed as a recommended sample size. This will be the minimum required sample size in order for the result of the Slovin formula computation. By considering the computed sample size, the study will be needing 67 respondents as target samples. 80010053340n=n1+Ne2=2001+200(0.10)2=66.67 ?6700n=n1+Ne2=2001+200(0.10)2=66.67 ?67 Table 1 presents the distribution of the respondents. A total of 67 respondents composed of 13 police personnel and 54 local government officials will serve as primary source of data. Respondent Group Population Percent of Population Sample Size Police personnel 40 20.00 % 13 Local government officials 160 80.00% 54 Total 200 100% 67 Table 1.Distribution of the respondents. Data Gathering Procedure Letter of requests will be given and distributed to the key informants who are highly knowledgeable and have full capabilities and capacities to answer the inquiry of the respondents on the gender and development training of police personnel in Silang Municipal Police Station. One-one-one personal interview will be done to collect and gather essential and important data and facts through direct and verbal interaction between and important data and facts through direct and verbal interaction between the researchers and respondents. After all the interview between the respondents and the researchers, documentation will be done. The researchers will encode all answers for comparison and contrast. The researchers will maintain honest encoding of answers to assure credibility and integrity of the result upon the conduct of interview with the respondents. As preparation in case the target respondents are unavailable, random sampling from the list of respondents will be done for the selection process of substitutes. This random sampling process as substitution scheme will be followed in order to guarantee comprehensive information from the targeted number of respondents. The total number of target respondents will still be 67 persons. The PNCOs, PCOs and local government officials from Sangguniang Bayan will be the target respondents. Through the use of this random sampling process, the credibility and integrity of the survey will be maintained and secured. Instrumentation The research shall be done by utilizing questionnaires to be answered by the selected respondents. In order to attain an effective and efficient conduct of the study, set of question must be formulated. In the formulation of the questionnaire, the researchers will thoroughly discuss the questions to be asked to the respondents. The purpose of this is to acquire all the necessary questions to be used for the success of the conduct of the study. After the intensive discussion, the initial set of questions will be developed. These set of questions will be sent to the researchers’ adviser for assessment, evaluation and analysis. The initial set of questions will be amended based on the recommendation of the adviser. The revised set of questions will compose the draft questionnaire. The proponents will pretest to 6 (six) pilot samples. The six (6) pilot samples will be composed of 3 samples from police personnel and three (3) samples from the local government unit group. The pretest will ensure that the questions are understandable and will get inputs from the respondents. The questionnaire will be revised based on the result of the pretest. The respondents’ understanding plays a vital role in determining an accurate answer and reliable source of information. The following parts will contain the final survey questionnaire: Part I – Profile of the Respondents Part II – Respondents’ assessment on gender and development of police personnel Part III – Problems encountered in gender and development of police `personnel Part IV – Proposed measures to address the problems encountered in the gender and development of police personnel In order to validate the credibility of the respondents, the part one of the survey will deal with the participants’ age, gender and educational attainment. The next part will cover the assessment of gender and development of police personnel relative to the independent variables which are the role assignment, responsibility designation and gender expectations. The third part will focus on the problems encountered in the gender and development training of police personnel. Lastly, the questionnaire will cover the proposed measures for gender and development of police personnel in order to address the problems. Analysis of Data The variables used in the research study will be evaluated using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics is used to organize the body of raw data collected so that these data can be easily understood. In inferential statistics, conclusion will be drawn from the population of the organized data formulated. Therefore, the weighted mean and percentage will be computed for the descriptive statistic. And for the inferential, t-test will be used to determine whether there is significant difference on the assessment of the respondents in the study. In the study and analysis of the respondent’s profile, the researchers will use percentage (P) in determining the ratio of the frequency of responses (f) to the number of respondents (N) to give a figure as represented by the following formula: P = (f/N) *100 To describe the importance and significance of the respondents answers, problems encountered and proposed measures, point rating scale was adopted. The scale is shown below: Scale Verbal Interpretation Interval Rating 5 Strongly Agree/Very Serious/Highly Recommended 4.50 – 5.00 4 Agree/Serious/Recommended 3.50 – 4.49 3 Moderately Agree/Moderately Serious/Moderately Recommended 2.50 – 3.49 2 Disagree/Less Serious/Less Recommended 1.50 – 2.49 1 Strongly Disagree/Not Serious/Not Recommended 1.00 – 1.49 The sum of the product of the frequency and the unit weight (fco) divided by the number of respondents (N) is the weighted mean. The analysis on “The Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel in Silang, Cavite” and the proposed measures is shown below: WM = fW/N In order to determine whether there is a significance difference in the assessment of the respondents with regards to gender and development training of police personnel or not, a t-test will be conducted using the following formula: t=x1- x2ss2 + ss2n1+n21n1+1n2Where: t – computed t-value x1 – mean of group 1 x2 – mean of group 2 ss1 – sum of square of group 1 ss2 – sum of square of group 2 n1 – no of observations in group 1 n2 – no of observations in group 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY Argues, A., (2013). Gender Equality in the Philippines. Academia News. Retrieved August 7, 2017, from http://www.academia.edu/4647116/ JULY_2013_GENDER_EQUALITY_IN_THE_PHILIPPINES Asian Development Bank. (2013). Gender Equality in the Labor Market in the Philippines. ADB Publications. Retrieved August 7, 2017, from https://www.adb.org/ publications/gender-equality-labor-market-philippinesBallescas, C. P., (2016). Gender Equality and women empowerment. Freeman Opinion. Retrieved August 7, 2017, from http://www.philstar.com/freeman-opinion/ 2016/08/25/1616988/gender-equality-and-women-empowerment Loren, J. D., (2011). Gender Sensitivity Training. JAGNA. Retrieved August 7, 2017, from http://jagna.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Gender-Sensitivity- Training-2nd-Batch.pdf Mananzan, M. J., (2015). Gender programs to be mainstreamed in PH academe. Inquirer. Retrieved August 7, 2017, from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/734618/gender- programs-to-be-mainstreamed-in-ph-academe Philippine Commission on Women. (2009). Gender responsive governance. Initiatives. Retrieved August 7, 2017, from http://www.pcw.gov.ph/focus-areas/gender- responsive-governance/initiatives Rodriguez, F., (2015). Oh my GAD: PH allots billions for gender, development. Rapper Nation. Retrieved August 7, 2017, from http://www.rappler.com/nation/134220 Thong same, A., (2016). Gender Equality in ASEAN: Lesson from the Philippines and the Road Ahead. Warwick ASEAN Conference. Retrieved August 7, 2017 , from http:// warwickaseanconference.com/gender-equality-in-asean-lesson-from-the-philippines- and-the-road-ahead/ Virtucio, K. M., (2017). Police participate in Gender Awareness Training. Dumaguete Metro Post. Retrieved August 6, 2017, from http://dumaguetemetropost.com/police- participate-in-genderawareness-training-p4303-489.htm Appendix A.Letter request for the PNPA Director for the conduct of the study. -24765-762000 Republic of the Philippines Philippine Public Safety College PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE ACADEMY 29 August 2017 PCSUPT RANDOLF REVITA DELFIN Director, Philippine National Police Academy Camp General Mariano N Castañeda, Silang, Cavite Dear Sir: Please be informed that the undersigned cadets are currently conducting their undergraduate thesis entitled, “The Gender and Development of Police Personnel in Silang, Cavite”. This study aims to assess the factors affecting the gender and development training of police personnel. In view of this, we would like to respectfully request for your approval with regards to the conduct of the study. Rest assured that all information gathered will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Thank you very much. Very truly yours, Cdt 2C SITTI BENZONE YUSUP ALI Cdt 2C VICENTE MONTE AMBAS Cdt 2C MAYCEE DE ASIS ANTAZO Appendix B.Letter request for the Dean of Academics for the conduct of the study. -24765-762000 Republic of the Philippines Philippine Public Safety College PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE ACADEMY 29 August 2017 PSUPT HORDAN T. PACATIW Dean of Academics, Philippine National Police Academy Camp General Mariano N Castañeda, Silang, Cavite Dear Sir: Please be informed that the undersigned cadets are currently conducting their undergraduate thesis entitled, “The Gender and Development of Police Personnel in Silang, Cavite”. This study aims to assess the factors affecting the gender and development training of police personnel. In view of this, we would like to respectfully request for your approval with regards to the conduct of the study. Rest assured that all information gathered will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Thank you very much. Very truly yours, Cdt 2C SITTI BENZONE YUSUP ALI Cdt 2C VICENTE MONTE AMBAS Cdt 2C MAYCEE DE ASIS ANTAZO Appendix C.Letter request for the Head of Office for the conduct of the study. -24765-762000 Republic of the Philippines Philippine Public Safety College PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE ACADEMY 29 August 2017 THE CHIEF OF POLICE Silang Municipal Police Station Silang,CaviteDear Sir: Please be informed that the undersigned cadets are currently conducting their undergraduate thesis entitled, “The Gender and Development of Police Personnel in Silang, Cavite”. This study aims to assess the factors affecting the gender and development training of police personnel. In view of this, we would like to respectfully request for your approval with regards to the conduct of the study. Rest assured that all information gathered will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Thank you very much. Very truly yours, Cdt 2C SITTI BENZONE YUSUP ALI Cdt 2C VICENTE MONTE AMBAS Cdt 2C MAYCEE DE ASIS ANTAZO Appendix D.Letter request to the respondents of the study. -24765-762000 Republic of the Philippines Philippine Public Safety College PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE ACADEMY 29 August 2017 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Dear Respondent: Please be informed that the undersigned cadets are currently conducting their undergraduate thesis entitled, “The Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel in Silang, Cavite”. This study aims to assess the factors affecting the gender and development training of police personnel to serve as basis in the enhancement of gender and development training of police personnel. In view of this, we would like to solicit your participation with regards to the collection of information required in the study. Rest assured that all information gathered will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Thank you very much. Very truly yours, Cdt 2C SITTI BENZONE YUSUP ALI Cdt 2C VICENTE MONTE AMBAS Cdt 2C MAYCEE DE ASIS ANTAZO Appendix E.Letter request to the key informants of the study. -24765-762000 Republic of the Philippines Philippine Public Safety College PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE ACADEMY 29 August 2017 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Dear Informants: Please be informed that the undersigned cadets are currently conducting their undergraduate thesis entitled, “The Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel in Silang, Cavite”. This study aims to assess the factors affecting the gender and development training of police personnel to serve as basis in the enhancement of gender and development training of police personnel. In view of this, we would like to solicit your participation with regards to the collection of information required in the study. Rest assured that all information gathered will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Thank you very much. Very truly yours, Cdt 2C SITTI BENZONE YUSUP ALI Cdt 2C VICENTE MONTE AMBAS Cdt 2C MAYCEE DE ASIS ANTAZO Appendix F.The survey questionnaire to be used in the study. SURVEY FORM Part I.Profile of the Respondents Direction:Kindly indicate your answer by placing a check (?) mark in the space provided in each of the items below: Category: ___Police Officer ___Local Government Official Age: ___20 years and below ___21-25 ___26-30 ___31-35 ___36-40 ___41-45 ___46-50 ___51-55 ___56-60 ___61 years and above Gender: ___Male ___Female Highest Educational Attainment: ___Elementary ___High School ___College ___Master’s ___Doctorate Part II.Respondents’ Assessment on The Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel in Silang, Cavite Direction:Please indicate your answer by placing a check mark (?) in the appropriate box, using the scale below: Scale Verbal Interpretation 5-Strongly Agree(SA) 4-Agree(A) 3-Moderately Agree(MA) 2-Disagree(D) 1-Strongly Disagree(SD) Role Assignment: refers to the function assumed by police personnel as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite Indicators SA (5) A (4) MA (3) D (2) SD (1) 1 Male and female police personnel are given equal treatment in the assignment of their functions 2 Both male and female police personnel are dispatched to field works 3 Both male and female police personnel are assigned on beat for police visibility 4 Male and female are give rotation assignments 5 Male and female police personnel are assigned in specific placer for community relations Responsibility designation: refers to the different responsibility designated to police personnel as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite Indicators SA (5) A (4) MA (3) D (2) SD (1) 1 Male and female police personnel have equal responsibility designation 2 Designation of responsibility of police personnel are based on their gender 3 Male and female police personnel assume multiple designation at the same time 4 Male and female police personnel are trained based on their responsibility designation 5 Male and female police personnel are evaluated regularly based on their performance Gender expectation: refers to the anticipated roles of uniformed men and women as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite Indicators SA (5) A (4) MA (3) D (2) SD (1) 1 Policewomen are expected to deal better with delinquents than policemen. 2 Policemen are expected to respond in criminal incidents than policewomen. 3 Policewomen are expected to work in office than policemen 4 Policewomen are expected to be more organize in works and activities. 5 Policewomen are expected to be in charge with talks and seminars. Part III.Problems Encountered in The Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel in Silang, Cavite Direction:Please indicate your answer by placing a check mark (?) in the appropriate box, using the scale below: Scale Verbal Interpretation 5-Very Serious (VS) 4-Serious(S) 3-Moderately Serious(MS) 2-Less Serious(LS) 1-Not Serious(NS) Role Assignment: refers to the function assumed by police personnel as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite Indicators VS (5) S (4) MS (3) LS (2) NS (1) 1 Unfair assignment of function 2 Lack of skill of female police personnel to field works 3 Less trust given by the community to the male police compared to female police personnel 4 Insufficient skill of female personnel to respond to emergencies 5 Female personnel are mostly only assigned on admin matters Responsibility designation: refers to the different responsibility designated to police personnel as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite Indicators VS (5) S (4) MS (3) LS (2) NS (1) 1 Unequal designation of responsibility 2 Gender-biased responsibility designation 3 Poor performance of police personnel of many tasks 4 Insufficient training programs 5 Bias evaluation of police personnel Gender expectation: refers to the anticipated roles of uniformed men and women as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite Indicators VS (5) S (4) MS (3) LS (2) NS (1) 1 There are not enough records of delinquent cases. 2 Little information and files about the respondents in crime incidents 3 No records of assessment in the past 4 Limited space for works and limited policewomen involved 5 There are little talks and seminars that have been conducted. Part IV.Proposed Recommendations to Enhance The Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel in Silang, Cavite Direction:Please indicate your answer by placing a check mark (?) in the appropriate box, using the scale below: Scale Verbal Interpretation 5-Highly Recommended(HR) 4-Recommended(R) 3-Moderately Recommended(MR) 2-Less Recommended(LR) 1-Not Recommended(NR) Role Assignment: refers to the function assumed by police personnel as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite Indicators HR (5) R (4) MR (3) LR (2) NR (1) 1 Strict observance of equal treatment in giving role assignments 2 Conduct of special trainings to female police personnel 3 Conduct appropriate skill training enhancement and seminars 4 Observance of fair role assignment rotation 5 Engage both male and female police personnel in PCR activities Responsibility designation: refers to the different responsibility designated to police personnel as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite Indicators HR (5) R (4) MR (3) LR (2) NR (1) 1 Strictly observe equal distribution of responsibilities 2 Equal responsibility designation among female and male police personnel 3 There must be balance distribution of responsibility among police personnel 4 Designate police personnel based on their skills and trainings 5 Conduct bias-free and realistic evaluation of police personnel C. Gender expectation: refers to the anticipated roles of uniformed men and women as part of their gender and development training in Silang, Cavite Indicators HR (5) R (4) MR (3) LR (2) NR (1) 1 Policewomen should be assigned in sensitive kind of cases like rape. 2 Policemen should secure the files and have a detailed report of the respondents of the crime. 3 Assessment of the personnel should be conducted quarterly. 4 Try to monitor the strengths and weaknesses of every personnel. 5 Have more talks and seminars regarding the problems of incidents happening in Silang Cavite Appendix G.The interview guide to be utilized in the study. INTERVIEW GUIDE Based from your experience, what is your assessment on the Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel of Silang, Cavite in terms of: Role assignment? ______________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Responsibility designation? _______________________________ _____________________________________________________ Gender expectation? ____________________________________ _____________________________________________________ What are the problems encountered in the Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel Silang, Cavite as to:Role assignment? ______________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Responsibility designation? _______________________________ _____________________________________________________ Gender expectation? ____________________________________ _____________________________________________________ In your opinion, what can you recommend to enhance the Gender and Development Training of Police Personnel Silang, Cavite relative to: Role assignment? ______________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Responsibility designation? _______________________________ _____________________________________________________ Gender expectation? ____________________________________ _____________________________________________________ CURRICULUM VITAE 1270012336400 Name: SITTI BENZONE YUSOP ALI Birthdate :MAY 15, 1993 Address:ZONE 1, BRGY. MURICAY, PAGADIAN CITY, ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR, PHILIPPINES Education:BS IN CRIMINOLOGY Training:SPECIAL COUNTER INSURGENCY TRAINING (SCOUT) INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE TRAINING ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (ICITAP) CURRICULUM VITAE 311153683000 Name: VICENTE MONTE AMBAS Birthdate :JULY 03, 1993 Address:SAPID, MANKAYAN, BENGUET Education:BS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF THE CORDILLERAS Training:SPECIAL COUNTER INSURGENCY TRAINING (SCOUT) INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE TRAINING ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (ICITAP) CURRICULUM VITAE 304802794000 Name: MAYCEE DE ASIS ANTAZO Birthdate : May 05, 1995 Address: 148 DAISY ST. URDANETA MAGALLANES CAVITE Education: AB POLITICAL SCIENCE (College Undergraduate) Training: SPECIAL COUNTER INSURGENCY TRAINING (SCOUT) INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE TRAINING ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (ICITAP)