GERIAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF FSB INTERNATIONAL BANK PLC, MAIDUGURI BRANCH, NIGERIA. (COURSE:FOUNDATION OF MARKETING) BUSN 342 BY MOHAMMED GAJIMI UB1952BBA4925 OF THE DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ATLANTIC INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY JUNE, 2004 This work is a case study submitted to the student service of the AIU, after completion of the course titled “Foundation of Marketing” (BUSN 342) by the writer. TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page ———1 Table of Contents——-11 CHAPTER ONE 1.0Introduction——-1 1.1Background of the study—–1 1.2Historical Background ——3 1.3Statement of the research problem/hypothesis -5 1.4Objective of the study ——6 1.5Significance of the study—–7 1.6Scope and limitation of the study —-7 1.7Methodology of the study—–8 1.8Definition of marketing information system (MIS)-9 CHAPTER TWO 2.1Literature review——10 2.2Definition of and concept of marketing information system – 13 2.3Components of marketing information system–16 2.4Benefits of marketing information system–19 2.5Information required——20 2.6Learning through system analysis —-23 2.7Marketing system and evaluation alternative marketing sub-system——24 8. The impact of marketing information system on managerial decision making—-26 2.9Decision making process—–28 2.10 Why decision making is not rational—30 CHAPTER THREE 3.1Method of data collection—–32 3.2Population of the research —–32 3.3Sampling size——- 32 3.4Sampling technique——33 CHAPTER FOUR 4.1Introduction——-35 4.2Data presentation and analysis—-36 4.3Data presentation——37 4.4Data analysis——-43 CHAPTER FIVE 5.0Summary, conclusion and recommendation –49 5.1Summary——–49 5.2Conclusion ——–50 5.3Recommendation—— 51 APPENDIX Reference———55 Questionnaire——–56 Bibliography——–58 CHAPTER ONE 1.0INTRODUCTION 1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY “To manage a business well, is to manage its future, and to manage the future is to manage information”.
To do these things management needs information. Today mass information is generated through external sources and within a firm. To efficiently manage this information a company needs marketing information system. A marketing information system is the major tool used by management to aid in problem solving and decision making. Today many environment forces and changing conditions within the firms make it imperative that every organisation manage its marketing information as effectively as possible, through there are some certain factors both internal and external and their relationship to information management. Growing consumer discounted is often intensified because management lacks adequate information about some aspect of its marketing program.
May be the firm does not realised its product is not up toconsumer expectations or its middlemen are not performing adequately. Marketing activity is becoming more complex and broader in its scope. Organisations are expanding their markets even to the point of engaging multinational marketing. Marketing activity is becoming more complex and broader in its scope. Organisations are expanding their markets even to the point of engaging multinational marketing. Substantial benefit can be derived with respect to decision making by the operation of a computer, installed and design information to be discussed in this thesis.
Furthermore, Nigerian firms from the experience of other firms that have bulk aided that firms either avoid or adopt an information system, such system help in one way or the other that is in practical way in order to adopt or dismiss a computer based information system, and can reach to a decision. Fortunately, the pre-eminent that provide the skills and idea based on the practical impact of the marketing information system on decisions making suited to superior help the firms and the managers following evaluation for adoption of an MIS as a route. 1.2HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FSB International Bank was incorporated on the 31st March, 1989 by the Federal Government of Nigeria to carryout the business of modern commercial banking. The bank was incorporated following the liquidation of the Federal Savings Bank, a government saving bank that was unprofitable. The new managerial of FSB International Bank Limited was headed by the chief executive Mohammed Hayatu-deen, and successfully commenced full commercial banking operations on the 1st of September 1991.
At that time the bank took over those assets and liabilities of Federal Saving Bank that were consistent with commercial banking operations in a manner that resulted in no net benefit or cost to it. The remaining assets and liabilities of FederalSavingBank (inclusive of terminal benefit of employees) were transferred to FSB Finance Limited, which was a finance company, created simultaneously by the Federal Government which mange them on behalf of the Federal Government of Nigeria. Privatisation FSB was fully privatised in 1992 under the Federal Government Commercialisation and Privatisation Program. This exercised turned the bank into a fully privatised commercial bank free from direct day to day Government intervention and control. The Re-birth and FSB International Bank Plc The Bank has cover the years of its existence instituted a tradition of periodically reviewing its direction and performance amongst its general public.
It was therefore during its 1995 review that it noted the inherent changes, which had occurred over the years within the bank needed to be reflected communicated externally. Thus against this backdrop, in July 1997, the bank launched a new symbol-logo, pay-offlineandthe introduction of two new corporate colours, green and blue. The new logo depicted as two inter locking hands represents partnership between the bank and its customers. It is this concept which informed the new pay-off line “FSB – the Natural Business Partner”, the new colours are abold declaration of what FSB represents – the blue representing the Bank strong, yet conservative approach to business dealings as well as its stability resulting from an application of due caution in handing depositors funds.
The green, selected for its depiction of the freshness of approach and attitude among the staff of FSB, represent a deep-rooted commitment to the environment. This commitment to the environment has been manifested in various initiations such as beautification of various roundabouts in the country, in addition to membership of the Nigerian conservation, an affiliate of the W.W.F 1.3STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM/HYPOTHESIS Considerable time of managers are devoted to decision making, many mangers take decision without reference to information, on the particular area of decision making. Usually decision is based on previous events or old records of data. Marketing information system is a system that provides managers with current and up-to-date information for manger’s usage in their day to day activities.
Now, researches have progressed and have brought with them pressures of information exploitation and need to process bulk data to extract small amount of information with the high speed processing capabilities of computers. But the question is to what extent Nigerians organisation have systematised their information needs? And if they are computerised is there any benefit or impact on the side of their operations? HYPOTHESIS The following hypothesis is formulated for this project. NULL HYPOTHESIS Ho=Marketing information system has impact on managerial decision. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS Hi=Marketing information system has no impact on managerial decision.
1.4OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This project aims to exploit the situation and make available the actual impact on information system have on decision making of appropriate executives of Nigerians firms/organisations. The actual objectives of this project are to show the importance of the marketing information system in an organisation. – To find the problems and prospectors of marketing information system in FSB International Bank Maiduguri Branch. – To make recommendations which will improve the importance and as well suggest ways to reduce the problem encountered. 1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Any scholarly project like this must have some relevance to some group of individuals or organisations.
A considerable number of people will no doubt achieve from this study, more especially those engage in the banking industries. They will know how to improvetheirmarketing information system to be effective and efficient. In addition to those people, students of Business management and other related sectors will also benefit. 1.6SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This project, the impact of Marketing Information system is aimed at studying the impact of marketing information of FSB International Bank, Maiduguri branch. This study was based on the type of information system they used in relation to marketing. As limitations some respondents did not provide adequate information the questionnaire that was administered and some did not even attend to the questionnaire.
As a matter of fact the project is inadequately finance so much so that it only cover the Maiduguri branch. 1.7METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY In respect to the undertakings of this project work, the researcher in his method of data collection will used the organisation, marketing textbooks brochures, if any sourcing for a secondary data. Personnel interview method may be the predominant primary data collection method, it is easier than questionnaire methodasboth customers, and the staff may not have time to respond positively and quickly to written questionnaire. Telephone calls to the organisation top management staff and some of the customers if willingly accepted from time to time is equally imperative. The data which may use in analysing the data collection, the test statistics employed in this analysis is the “chi-square” (X2) test; this test is appropriate as we test for the observed differences in proportion of more than two variables. 8.
DEFINITION OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS) (MIS) is define as the comprises of the people, equipment and producers, together, sort, analyse, evaluate and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers. The past (30) years have witnessed the emergence of the computer, microfilming, cable, CD-Rom drivers etc. The single most important technological development has been the rise of computerized data capture system in regard to marketing information system that liaise with the decision process. CHAPTER TWO 2.1LITERATURE REVIEW History has shown that, the business organisation management put overwhelming attention to the problems of effective management and decision making as well as devoting their concentration on the time and part of information system.
(Koller, 1980) observed that “business has attained increased mastering over and above theses resources”. It is however, difficult to locate company executives anywhere who are substantially satisfied with their marketing information. Koller identified some of the executives complains, these are: – – The information often arrives too late to be effective. – Usually the information is not enough to be the correct one. – Usually the information is so deserved through out the organisation that usually a great effort must be shown to identify the easy facts. – Also there are various marketing information that are the good one to be considered.
The reality is that, most of the organisations have not yet adopted the reliable information requirements for effective marketing in a new world economy. According to one researcher Gerald S. Albom (1979) “there are some reasons in particular rendered the need for marketing information stronger than anything in the past”. The first reason is the shift from local to national and international marketing.
The concept of national and international organisations means that management decision makers must make their key decisions on the basis of second class information, since they are far remote than the scenes where their businesses aer running. The second reason was the difference between the customers, and the workers policies. As the customer or society becomes more affluent, business activities becomes a highly expressive of customers act and workers or organisations must depend on systematic research to understand the overt and latent wants of customers. The third reason identified by the researcher is the transition of rate variances.
This means that as organisation increase their reliance on competitive weapons such as the machines, computers, and internal house training tactics, and method of advert require greater qualities of information ontheeffectivenessofthesemanagerialdecisions. Considerable business organisations however, donothavemarketing information research departments, while some have a little one to maintain. But today, economies have progressed and have brought with pressures of information exploitation and the need to process large amount of data to extract small amount of information exploitation and the need to process large amount of data to extract small amount of information. So far, much has been said about the inherent problems brought about by computer-based information system operation. But conclusively it is still argued that coping with or avoiding such problems and achieving significance benefit is possible from a well designed operated and manage computer based information system. A computer-based information has to offer for effective decision making by managers of existing organisation (Anker, 1987).
A military or diplomatic intelligence operation resembles marketing information system to some extent, this is because “marketing information system, gathers process, store potentiallyusefulinformationthat currently exist in fragmented, unorganised, but open and avoidable from in several locations inside and outside the organisation”. In marketing information we are not suggesting the use of uncovered methods such as industrial espionage or hiring competitors personal to learn their secrets. In their literature (Good and Cox 1982) realised that “In most cases an organisation does not need to rely on such clandestine methods”. They also further realize that fluently, they are valueless or even counter productive. (Smith and Brien, 1986) argues that, a modern marketing information system would not be possible without a computer because of the bulkiness of data to be handled.
The information an organisation needs is usually available by socially acceptable means, if the organisation will just establish a reasonably easy marketing information system is especially characterised by its use of a computer and personnel processing qualitative analytical capabilities. 2.2DEFINITION AND CONCEPT OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM There is no universal accepted definition of marketing information system, depending upon the expertise and the perspective of the authors, the need for timely information, the satisfaction of marketing objectives for managerial functions, the role of data transformation,orthe importance of a series of reorts may be the forced points. Below are some of the most basic definition of marketing information system that are derive from the view points of the authors: – Piercy (1989) argues that the concept of marketing information system can be applied at both a micro level in the organisation and at a macro level in the channel of operations. Basically themicromarketing information system is that sub-system concerned with operations. At the macro level emphasis is placed on the distributed information system in the channel of operations. Kuntz and Broone (1991) defined marketing information system as a designed set of, procedures and methods for penetrating on orderly flow of pertinent information for use in marketing with decisions, providing management with the current or conditional future states of his needs and also providing indications at market research to organisations actions as well as the actions of competitors.
Stafford and Brien (1998) defined a marketing information system as a “structured, interacting complex of persons, machines andprocedures designed to generate an orderly flow of pertinent information, collected from both intra and extra organisation sources for use as the basis for decision making inspecifiedresponsibilityareas”formarketing management. This definition system is a fashionable synonym and introduce the notion that information can come from many sources inside or outside the boundaries of organisation. Kotler (1980) sees marketing information system as standing between the marketing environment decisions but points furthertointernal operating data, marketing intelligence range of sources to be considered. (Amstutz 1989) defined management information system as a system to provide management with.
-Current or conditional future states of the market environment. -Market response to organisation and or competitor actions. 2.3COMPONENTS OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM Source:Michael J. Baker (1987) The Marketing Book.
The elements which comprises the marketing information system as summarised by Michael J. Baker. The three layers identifies the application of information technology to marketing functions. This classification system is, to some extent, artificial, since there is overlap between each of these areas.
However, it is useful to see applications in terms of basic functions at the base of the figure, such as database management. More sophisticated functions such as market modeling and prediction are based the basic data. At the basic level the computer can be used to record and control a wide range of transactions with individual accounts. Many organisations have developed this transactional role since the cost saving implication is readily apparent.
By linking a series of files, the company can monitor a variety of different interactions with individual customers and use this to manage customers relationships. Database management can be extendedbyintegratingcustomer information with other data that are available on specific target markets. Fro example geographical information system such as ACORN and MOSAIC allow the user to compare the distribution of existing customers and provide guidance in targeting potential markets. At the third level, the potential exists for development models that can be used to plan and allocate marketing resources.
Reported applications at this level are fewer. However, there is increasing evidence of such developments in areas such as the evaluation of sales – promotion activity. Finally, there are some reported applications of the computer as an expert system to help the process of strategic planning. These involve the application of artificial intelligence to marketing decision making. Views of what the marketing information system should be are highly varied, although the structure below remains largely unchallenged as a view of the components of the system. To deal with the first of these points – definitions of the marketing information system are relatively arbitrary, although it is possible to enumerate the characteristics which have been associated with the marketing information system: – -It stores and integrated information on marketing issues from many sources.
-It provides for the dissemination of such information to decisions makers and other users. -It supports marketing decision making in both planning and control. -It is likely to be computerised and to use electronic communication channels. -It is not just a new name for market research. This said, it is necessary to recognise that there are many different type of marketinginformationsystem.Forexample,Graf(1979) distinguished between: *Data storage and retrieved system; and monitoring system; *Buzzell et al (1969) Distinguish between controlinformation; planning information; and information for basic research.
Structure of the Marketing Information System Sources:Michael J. Baker (1987). 2.4BENEFITS OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM Information technology has three main strands – computing, macro- electronics and telecommunications – which are combine together to provide a wide variety of products and services. This had led to some confusion in people’s mind as to exactly what information technology is.
The U.K. Department of Industry definition is that it isthe”acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial textual and numerical information by a micro-electronics based combination of computing and telecommunications. It is thus not just a collection of new products and services but a newwayofconductingindustrial,commercial,educationaland administrative business. It has been predicted that it will effect every household and occupation, changing patterns of employment, lifestyles and spending patterns while creating new jobs and markets.
It has been said that to manage a business well is to manage its future, and to manage the future is to manage information. This has led managers to see it narrowly as computers or information system but includes much more than these two important elements, while computers, on line databases, information networks, etc. are all now becoming relevant to managers the technology is available to all firms and can thus be easily imitated. 2.5INFORMATION REQUIRED For reasons which will be expanded shortly, there is typically no clear and obvious relationship between the development of the marketing information function and commercial success – a point which has been reiterated by many writers over the years. (e.g.
Jeuck, 1953; Davidson; 1975; May 1981). To look for immediate ‘bottom-line’ impact is to take a simplistic view of how, marketing information is used, and to assume that an activity like market research makes decisions rather makes decisions rather than simply supports the decision making process. This leads to another, but related, point that the impact of information on decision making is complex and frequently Covent. Infact, our understanding of managerial decision remains limited, although it is apparent in reality (rather than the simple ‘go/no go’ model assumed by the management scientist) that marketing information is sought for reasons other than making simple choices between known options using explicit criteria. It has been suggested, for instance, that in reality: – a)Managers seek information to justify what as a already been decided (Cyent et al; 1956).
b)Marketing information may be use as a weapon to make Sale people properly optimistic (Hardin, 1969). c)Managers may use information as a way of decaying decisions rather than making them (Samuels, 1973). d)Marketing information may serve as an organisational function, for exampli-gratia providing common ground or a shared frame of reference, acting as a collecting memory, functioning as a stabilising factor, or even just providing reassurance. Infact, this leads to another reasons, if handled badly, developing a marketing system may actuallydamagetheexistingdecision-making processes. One paper attempts to identify these adverse hidden side-effects (Haskins and Nanni, 1986) suggest that: (i)The information system is a constrained set of data, with the result that managers may build a false picture of the world if they use only that constrained data set, so decisions are made with unnecessarily limited information – which is probably the same information set used in earlier decisions. (ii) The information in the system is likely to represent the systems designer’s view and understanding of the world rather than the manager’s.
(iii) While the data in the system may be frequently changed, the structure or frame of reference of the system is more likely to remain static, neglecting the facts as the world changes so should the configuration of data represented by the information system. 2.6LEARNING THROUGH SYSTEM ANALYTICS Graf (1979) recognise that there are many different types of marketing information system which can be distinguish: – 1. Data storage and retrieved systems – which make it simpled to use information by making it readily available. Such a system might involve keying information requests into a visual display unit as computer terminal to access computer files of data.
2. Monitoring system – which check progress and may alert management to variations, such as sales and market share falling below target. 3. Analytical information systems – which are design to answer such questions as why something happened, what is predicted to happen next, and what if queries such as what is likely to happen.
If we reduce prices or increase advertising. At a somewhat more sophisticated level, we can distinguish between the marketing information system elements which are associated with: – i) Current awarenesssubsystem-basedonsophisticated computerised information stores. ii) In-depth and crisis information subsystems – involving the use of marketing research techniques. iii) Incidential information systems – which are similar to what discuss as marketing intelligence by (Uhl, 1974). 2.7MARKETING SYSTEM AND EVALUATION ALTERNATIVE MARKETING SUBSYSTEM An operating sub-system might be a firms personal selling activity, distribution system, advertising program or any one of a number of other activities used by the firm in attempting to stimulate their services.
Each such operating sin-system according to (Sturdiuent, 1989): is characterised as: – (i)Personal selling: -The number of salesman and their tutorial assignments, compensation of salesman,travellingandroutine practices, call policy and new customers and others. (ii) Advertising:The media used and frequency of using, contents of advertising messages, type of copy used, duration of programmes and others. Marketing executives are aware of these to adjust costmore accurately of reflect performance. Ours is primarily with the question “if the organisation is not performing one off its marketing activities efficiently what action should be taken to improve performances”? The manager of an inefficiently performed marketing activity is in problem, if he knows only that his activity is not performed efficiently. Before he can correct the situation he must know in which direction to move and that long. The marketing manager to have sub-systems for the marketing activity under his control.
The following sub-system involves: – i)An operating sub-system already in use. ii)A history of past decisions which partially explain the existing status of the operating sub-system. iii) Problem faced by management or regularly accruing decisions which must be made by management which affects the status of the operating sub-system. iv)The information required by the management when making decision applied in three way above. v)Certain performance criteria used by management in evaluating the effectiveness of all or part of the operating sub-system. vi)Methods of evaluating alternative courses of action which might be taken when performance is judge to be in need of improvement.
vii)Marketing theories or concepts whichprovidetheunderlying foundation for each of the six items above (Fredrick D; Studivant et al 1989). 2.8THE IMPACT OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM ON MANAGEMENT DECION MAKING. Hammer and Mangurian (1987) suggest an impact/value framework for understanding the way in which the technology cancreatebusiness opportunities. The potential impact of it is classified into three area: compression of time, overcoming the restrictions of Geography and the restructuring of relationships. Time compression takes place through clear communication links between sites or organisational unit or between parts of the business process. Telecommunication networks allow limitations imposed by Geography to be overcome as well as theorganisational relationship both within the firm and between the firm and other entities.
The potential business value of it comes not onlyfromincreased productivity through greater efficiency, but also in greater effectiveness (better management). By providing relevant information through a decision – support system then better decision making it possible. Finally it can bring about an innovation or enhancement of the quality of products and services, thereby, improving company’s competitive position. Marketing, finally, is concerned with communicating to the market through advertising media and direct marketing, and it changing channels and methods available to do this. IMPACT/VALUE FRAMEWORK VALUE TABLE Efficiency EffectivenessInnovation |Accelerate|Reduce|Create| |Business |Information|Service | |Process |Float|Excellent| |Recapture|Ensure Global |Penetrate| |Scale|Management Control|New Market| |Bypass|Replicate|Build| |Intermediaries |Scarce Knowledge|Umbilical Cords| |Source: (Hammer, and Mangurian 1987).| An early as (1984 Schultz and Dewar) conclusive by saving that the solution for marketing management is clear, they must adapt and change or disappear traditional marketing management methods of the 1998s would be obsolete in the 1990s.
some of Schultz and Dewar’s predictions can be seen to be happening such as the growth in the use of direct marketing at the experience oftraditionalabove-the-activities,theincreaseduse electronics markets in both the business and customer service and the changing power balance, to name but s few. 2.9Decision Making Process Decision making is an important element of the planning process which applies the logic of effective thinking towards the solution or principle related to the problem. As a scientific process, decision making involves the following: – -Diagnosis -Determination of alternative courses of action -Evaluation of the alternative solution of the problem -Making choice -Implementation Diagnosis This deals with recognition of a problem needing solution. The course or courses and determination of the difficulties to the solution of the problem or the limiting factors. Diagnosis may also be referred to as the determination of the problem.
Determination of Alternative Courses of Action The function necessary to solve the problem and achieve the intended objectives bearing in mind the limiting factors involved. Sources of ideas include the decisions makes past experience, of others within creative of the decision makers. Evaluating of the Alternative Solution of the Problem Evaluating of the alternative solution of the problem in terms of its strength and weakness of each alternative and the extent or degree to which each alternative is likely to solve the problem. Making Choice This involves making alternative choices, testing the choices and making a final choice. Alternative choice may betestedforits effectiveness, by seeking the consensus of those who are to be effected by employing the “devils advocate” to probe the choice by making sequential decision through experimentation.
Implementation This is putting the choice into plans to try its likelihood of success in actual implementation. Decision making is said to be a rational process but it must be pointed out that complete rationality is seldom if ever achieved in decision making. 2.10 WHY DECISION MAKING IS NOT RATIONAL This is because: – 1.All the necessary an relevant information may not be available so that the decision is made on the basis of incomplete information, which may result in less than optimum solution to the problem. 2.All the possible solution to the problem can hardly be recognised. 3.Decision operates with future and since the future is full of uncertainties, there could be future development which might negate alternative nature course of action chosen. 4.To be rational, the decision maker must have the desire to optimise by choosing the alternative that best satisfied goal achievement.
But however human nature being what it is managers are not always or do not always do that. For example they do sometime subordinate the interest of the organisation to their individual or personal political societal or ethnic interest. Once managers are said to settle for what is called limited rationality, in view of the fact there are great limitation to complete rationally, in view of the fact that there are great limitation to complete rationally. In practice it is not surprising sometimes that managers do allow aversion or the desire it “play it safe” that interfere with the desire to reach an ultimate solution. This is desired to as satisfying i.e.
picking the cause of action that is satisfactory or good enough under the circumstances. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Maiduguri Branch is one of the 20 branches that is existing in FSB international Bank Plc. It has about four (4) different departments in the branch. These comprises the operation, marketing, internal control unit and GIS-General Internal Services departments with a total population number of about twenty five (25) working in the branch. These comprises of both the junior and senior staff including the General Manager. It is equally important to note that for the purpose of this research a particular organisation is use namelyFederalSavingBankFSB international Bank Plc Maiduguri Branch.
Data going to be collected fromvariousdepartmentinthe organisation. The required number of the population would be of the (20) twenty respondent. 3.3SAMPLING SIZE For the sampling size of this research a required number of (9) staff will respond to questionnaire. Another (5) from operation marketing will be required to respond to (2) then (2) will be from General Internal Service and the last (2) will be from Internal Control unit (ICU) which make the total number of respondent to be (20) twenty.
3.4SAMPLING TECHNIQUE The method of sampling techniques to be used in this research work is cluster sampling techniques. Cluster sampling involves the selection of a sample from a population which is divided into naturally occurring grouping of cluster. In cluster sampling we assume that the individual clusters are representative of the population as a whole. We then select a random of these clusters and include every element in the chosen in our sample. Cluster sampling is appropriate when there is considerable in within each group but the groups are essentially similar to other, then the researches draws a sample of the groups tonewandrespondto questionnaire.
In respect to this research work, departments of Federal Saving International FSB Plc are going to be grouped. CHAPTER FOUR 4.0DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.1INTRODUCTION FSB International Bank Plc has a wide distribution network through which it rendered their services to its numerous customers. Due to its wide spread of operations it requires information about all faces of its operation effective plan and control all the activities of the operational organisation. In order to achieve this, FSB International Bank Plc has fully computerised its entire information system through the use of terminals its able to link all its operative units within the country to the head office, in Lagos. The essentiality of this is to have a unique control of the other to have a full information and reports from every branch in the nation which can be transmitted to the head office and stored in its databank for processing and future use. In addition to this, this will help in the efficiency and speed to obtained reports within the branches as a whole.
The executives and the marketing managers will have a full knowledge of what is going within their corporation at a less time and as well the effective and efficient decisions that would enhance theirrendered services to customers. Information and reports channeled through the computer to Lagos covers a wide range of issues usually Branches are subjective to send their reports to headquarters within some specified period. In addition all information collected are stored in the databank of the computer in Head Office from which different users have access to any information they required for their specific need. An observation of their operational activities highlight the fact that FSB International Bank Plc has a strong accounting system which falls under the internal control unit good market research and intelligence system. Nevertheless, FSB International Bank Plc presently has left the system of software that’s Microbanker of which currently refers to as old method and proceed to new model which is flexcube. 4.2DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS Data obtained for the purpose of this research work are presented here, therefore, the data obtained from the questionnairesbythe respondents each of the data obtained from a given question are presented and the rate for which responds.
However, out of the total number of questionnaires distributed which is (20) twenty I was able to retrieve them back the whole of it that is (20) twenty. In order to analyse the data obtained for the purpose of the research, the chi-square (X2) method would be adopted and decision will be based on hypothesis tested. 4.3DATA PRESENTATION Data collected for the purpose of accomplishing research work are presented below in a tabular form. From the first table, it clearly explained the numbers of expected responses for each question from the conveyed questionnaire and based on the data obtained the number of observed responses are also computed in the Table. Nevertheless, out of the (20) twenty distributed questionnaire.
Hence the analysis will be same (20) twenty. QUESTION ONE Is there any marketing information system in your organisation? TABLE 4.1 |Responses |Number of Responses|Response Rate % | |Yes |20|100%| |No|0|0% | |Total|20|100%| The total number of respondent that agree their company have a marketing information system are 20 which is 100% and no response to disagree which is 0%. QUESTION TWO Is the marketinginformationsystem(MIS)computerisedinyour organisation? TABLE 4.2 |Responses |Number of Responses|Response Rate %| |Yes |20 |100 % | |No|0|0%| |Total|20 |100% | The total number of respondent in the table above are 20 that says yes and those disagree are nil which zero %, but the agreed % is 100% which is 20. QUESTION THREE Has your Marketing Information System (MIS) improved customers patronage? TABLE 4.3 |Responses|Number of Responses|Response Rate % | |Yes|18|90% | |No|2|10% | |Total |20|100% | The total respondent in table 3 were 18 which is 90% while only 2 degree which is 10%. QUESTION FOUR Do your customers appreciate your services? TABLE 4.4 |Responses |Number of Responses|Response Rate %| |Yes |20 |100% | |No|0|0%| |Total|20 |100% | In the four the respondent who agree are full 100% while those of No are nil which is zero %.
QUESTION FIVE Do your information come accurately at the right time? TABLE 4.5 |Responses|Number of Responses |Response Rate %| |Yes|18|90%| |No|2 |10%| |Total|20|100% | The above table shows that 18 response to Yes which is 90% while 2 response to No which is 10%. QUESTION SIX Is the information sufficient to managers? TABLE 4.6 |Response |Number of Response|Response Rate %| |Yes|17|85%| |No |3|15%| |Total|20|100%| This table shows the number of respondent which are 17 who agree out of the 20 that makes 85% while 15% respondents have disagree who are 3. QUESTION SEVEN Is there any improvement of a qualitative decision making since the introduction of this system? TABLE 4.7 |Responses|Number of Responses|Response Rate %| |Yes|17|85%| |No|3|15%| |Total|20|100%| Table seven shows that out of 20 respondents 17 respondents agree and 3 disagree which result in the % to be 85% and 15% respectively. QUESTION EIGHT Is there any acceptable decision by the management from the staff? TABLE 4.8 |Responses|Number of Responses|Response Rate %| |Yes|19|95%| |No |1|5%| |Total|20|100%| This table shows that 95% of the respondents agree with the question.
Its only one respondent that disagree in which is 5%. QUESTION NINE Do you enjoy working with your organisation? TABLE 4.9 |Responses|Number of Responses |Response Rate %| |Yes|16|80%| |No|4 |20%| |Total|20|100% | Due to the information gathered above, those who agree represents 16 out of 20 and it calculates to 80%. While the remaining 4 represent those who disagree and as well the remaining 20%. QUESTION TEN TABLE 4.10 |Responses |Number of Responses|Response Rate | |Yes |13 |65%| |No|7|35%| |Total|20 |100%| Eventually, in the decision rational process the respondent are 13 out of 20 which result to 65% while those disagree are 7 in which it is 35%. 4.4DATA ANALYSIS Having obtained the data presented on the above tables, it is worth while for the researcher to use chi-square (X2) distribution for the experiment in order to analyse the data.Simultaneouslyfromthe computerisation of the analysis can be used to arrange up the acceptable rule.
All the same, the table below represent the calculation of the expected value of the data presented. |Responses|Q1|Q2|Q3|Q4| |20|17.8 |2.2|4.84 |0.27 | |20|17.8 |2.2|4.84 |0.27 | |18|17.8 |0.2|0.04 |0.002 | |20|17.8 |2.2|4.84 |0.27 | |18|17.8 |0.2|0.04 |0.002 | |17|17.8 |-0.8 |2.64 |0.036 | |19|17.8 |1.2|1.44 |0.081 | |17|17.8 |-0.8 |0.64 |0.036 | |16|17.8 |-1.8 |3.24 |0.182 | |13|17.8 |-4.8 |23.04 |1.29 | Chi-square2.44 X2 = 2.44 computed value The computed value of Chi – Square (x2) as seen above is 2.44. Before I compute it with tabulated value from the “chi – square table”. It become necessary to compute for the degree of freedom for the data of each point. Df=degree of freedom R=Row C=Column ( Df = (R – 1)(C – 1) There are two (2) row for each data and ten (10) column. ( Df = (2 – 1) (10 – 1) = 1 x 9 = 9 Decision Rule: To obtained the decision as to whether the marketing information system (MIS) and managerial decision making process is effective to management.
We have to assume the 95% confidence interval at 9 on (0.05) level of significance and 9 degree of freedom will be considered in testing the hypothesis as to either null hypothesis will be accepted against the alternative hypothesis in respect of the hypothesis. Nevertheless, if the computed value of chi-square (X2) is greater than the tabulated value, then we reject the null hypothesis in favour of alternative hypothesis. Moreover, if the computed value is lower than the tabulated value of the chi-square we accept the null hypothesis against the alternative hypothesis. As for the stated above, the calculated value of chi-square as obtained is 2.44 which is lower than the critical value obtained in the table 16.919.
Therefore we accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative hypothesis. That is the marketing information system (MIS) has impact on managerial decision making in Federal SavingBank(FSB) International Bank Plc Maiduguri Branch. Alternative, the marketing information system (MIS) have improved the affairs of FSB in relation to managerial decision making process for they have strong policies which strengthen its system strategically enhance good policy formulation to management information decision making process. CONCLUSION Conclusively, in respond to hypothesis testing we are now able to know that the marketing information has contributed significantly towards the managerial decision making, promotion standardization of customers services rendered in the enterprises.
In essence, the validity of the Null hypothesis has been established by using the degree of freedom 9 and (0.05) level of significant then we find the value of “chi-square” (x2) which is 2.44 as againstthe established the tabulated value (16.919). CHAPTER FIVE 5.0SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1SUMMARY The summary of this project will start from the beginning of the first chapter which comprises the background of the study, historical background of the organisation which is FSB International together with problem of hypothesis, objective, significance methodology of the study and definition of the course of study that is marketing information system. Nevertheless, the review of the literature conduct various element of the study such as component of marketing information system, impact of marketing information system on managerial decision making is not rational etc. In addition the research methodology conduct the method of data collection, population of the research samplingsizeandsampling technique. The fourth stage talk about of the study that the FSB International Bank Plc data presentation of the findings, analysis of the study. The last stage or segment of the study try to purposely summarise the undertakings in the beginning to the end of the project together with the conclusion and the recommendation being made for the effective running of the FSB International Bank Plc activities in relation to the marketing as a managerial decision making process.
The major hypothesis were tested in this research which specified that the marketing information system (MIS) was effective. But based on the analysis of the chi-square (X2) test was used for testing the observed difference in population for two variables. The testing the observed difference in population for two variables. The result of the chi-square (X2) tested fall within the acceptance region, Therefore we reject the alternate hypothesis. The null hypothesis was accepted which proved that the marketing information system was a proper solution to theFSB International Bank Plc as a managerial decision making process. 5.2CONCLUSION The conclusion is draw from the analysis of data contained in chapter four (4).
The analysis which applied chi-square (X2) test shows 2.44 that falls within the acceptance region. Therefore, we reject the alternatice3 hypothesis which stated that marketing information system did not influence managerial decision making process. The implementation of marketing information system explained in terms of the needs, provide management with access to information relation to complex activities in company’s and decentralised diverse operational areas. This type of information will integrate basic operating function to this end. As much impact has been made on FSB International Bank PLC operate through its computer network system, e-mailandprocessing activities.
But the question that still remain is the extent to which the decision oriented information system can aid decision makers in their decision. To this route we have been able to observed much impact that can be derived from the implementation of marketing information system as a managerial decision making process. 5.3RECOMMENDATION For FSB International Bank Plc to have a proper control of its numerous customers services it rendered, activities and its marketing information functions in particular , there is need to still improve the flow of information within the organisation and proper utilization of such information or data are based on the following. i.The installation of modern devices, Fax, E-mail, Computer, Internet. ii.The need for a statistical bank iii. The use of models i.INSTALLATION OF MODERN DEVICES FSB International Bank Plc can improve its efficiency in information transmitted and obtained quickly advanced technology has led to the advent of new and sophisticated computer or devices that transmit information more and quicker, efficiently for instance, the introduction of Fax, (facsimile) the machine allows information to be sent from one geographical area to another within seconds, andd be obtained in another locality.
E-mail is also another accuracy and dependable device in which it shows that data needed within a glimpse in the computer. Internet is also another devices which can enhance the smooth running of the activities of the organisation in respect as managerial decision making process in FSB International Bank Plc. ii.THE NEED FOR STATISTICAL DATA The need for a statistical databank cannot be emphasised most of the decisions pertaining to marketing functions are enhanced if statistics are available. The Statistical Bank would contain programmes that enable managers to test the relationship as well to test variousmodels. Statistical Bank enables marketing managers to conduct time series analysis and regression or (correlation) analysis. Regression analysis is useful in the sense that it highlights relationship between two or more related factors.
iii. THE USE MODELS FSB international Bank Plc operates in dynamic business environment which is continuously changing on daily basis, customers tasteand principles, new competitors are moving into the Arena with new ideals and strategy, government legislator with regards to public services rendered etc. All the enumerated environment factors do effect the operations of any business operating in any environment. Therefore, FSB International Bank Plc has to be able to contribute, plan and predict for changes in certain environmental factors.
One means of doing this is to use models. Model due to their provide “if what”, kind of help to management. It present all the alternatives available to the managers giving situation and changing certain variables. Instances of models FSB International Bank Plc can use are descriptive models like the simulation models and customer’s behaviour model. Such models are useful inunderstandingmarketing information phenomenon and may help depict firms interactions. REFERENCE Piercy N.
(1991) Market-led strategic change Harper-Collins Publisher Stephen P. (1995)Introductory Marketing Stanley Thornes Publishers Ellenborugh House Wellington Street Michael J.B. (1997)The Marketing Book Butherworth-Heinemann, Ltd Oxford Ubeku A. (1975) Personnel Management in Nigeria Ethiopia Publishers Corporation Kotler P. (1980) Marketing Management Analysis, Planning Implementation Control. Prentice Hall Inc.
Eaglewood Cliff New Jersey Modern A.R. (1987)Element of Marketing DP Publication, Aldine place, London Richard and Collin (1992)Strategic Marketing Management By Mcgraw-Hall, Inc. William J.S. (1981)Fundamentals of Marketing By Mcgraw-Hall, Inc.
Stanley J.P. (1986)International Marketing Butterworth-Heinemann Jordan Hill Oxford QUESTIONNAIRE SAMPLE Tick where appropriate Q1.Is there any marketing information system (MIS) in your organisation? Yes No Q2.In the marketing information system (MIS) computerised in your organisation? Yes No Q3.has your marketing system (MIS) improved customers patronage? Yes No Q4.Do your customers appreciate your services? Yes No Q5.Do your information come accurately at the right time? Yes No Q6.Is the information sufficient to managers? Yes No Q7.Is there any improvement of a qualitative decision making since the introduction of this system? Yes No Q8.Is there any acceptable decision by the management from the staff? Yes No Q9.Do you enjoy working with your organisation? Yes No Q10. Do you agree with the view that decision making is not rational? Yes No Q11. Who should be consulted or involved in decision making? Yes No Q12. What stypes of information provided by the organsiation? ……………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………… Q13. How can we subdivide the environment to analyse it more effective? a. Business environment b.
Technology environment c. Socio-cultural environment d. Economic environment 14.Do your management promote you in any way or kind? Yes No Q15. How do you interpret the impact of changes we identify in the environment? a.Impact on customers b.Technological impact c.Impact on socio-culture d.Impact on economic Q16. Can you tell me if marketing information system has an impact on managerial decision making? Yes No Q17. Which environment needs better addressing to improve our marketing? a.Business market b.Market competitive c.Technological d.Legal e.International Q18.
Who should interpret the picture built of the organisation? a.The management team b.The customer c.The workers d.a ; b above e.b ; c above Q19. What are the changes identified in business environment? a.Business changes b.Economic c.Political d.Technological changes Q20. How do you interpret the impact of changes we identify in the environment? a. Technological impact b.
Customer’s impact c. Market size and share d. Political legal impact BIBLIOGRAPHY Kotler P. (1980) Marketing Management Analysis, Planning Implementation Control.
Prentice Hall Inc. Eaglewood Cliff New Jersey Michael J.B. (1997)The Marketing Book Butherworth-Heinemann, Ltd Oxford Modern A.R. (1987)Element of Marketing DP Publication, Aldine place, London Piercy N. (1991) Market-led strategic change Harper-Collins Publisher Richard and Collin (1992)Strategic Marketing Management By Mcgraw-Hall, Inc.
Stephen P. (1995)Introductory Marketing Stanley Thornes Publishers Ellenborugh House Wellington Street Stanley J.P. (1986)International Marketing Butterworth-Heinemann Jordan Hill Oxford Ubeku A. (1975) Personnel Management in Nigeria Ethiopia Publishers Corporation William J.S. (1981)Fundamentals of Marketing By Mcgraw-Hall, Inc.
———————– Strategic planning Marketing modeling Marketing productivity Market profiting and targeting, developing effective Direct marketing Managing transaction of customers 3 layers of the application Marketing Information system * Marketing productivity analysis * Marketing Intelligence * Marketing Research * marketing Models Time Marketing Management Marketing environment Geography Relationships