Researchers were always interested in the question of the degree of human influence on its environment. Abnormal natural phenomena, a growing number of natural disasters, significant temperature fluctuations raise questions about global climate change now. Many of them are caused by natural factors. However, a lot of specialists talk about increasing human influence on the climate. The nature of the changes is not clearly defined. A large number of representatives of the scientific world believes that the era of the warming comes. But some of scientists believe that the ice age is a possible scenario. Various theories about the causes and consequences put forward.
The trend of increasing air temperature observed since the late 19th century. A further increase in average temperature is associated with the expansion of industry. Carbon dioxide is the main product of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. An increase in the level of carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, water vapor leads to delaying the thermal cure at the earth surface. There are natural sources of greenhouse gas emissions: volcanic activity at the bottom of oceans, evaporation of biological origin. However, the raising in global temperature is involved with anthropogenic activities.
An international group of experts created by the UN, has determined that a further increase in atmospheric temperature more than 2 degrees Celsius can be fatal. The mass of ice and snow will reach a critical minimum. Many coastal towns of the United States, Japan, Baltic countries and others may be completely inundated. It will cause significant economic and geopolitical problems. The fresh water supply will be greatly reduced. The water balance of the planet is likely to be disrupted. Many species, especially endemic species, may disappear.
A group of scientists suggests that the Earth has entered a period of cooling. The proponents of this theory believe that natural factors are the main cause of climate change. Large-scale geological studies confirm that global changes in climate occurred repeatedly. According to observations by Russian researchers over the snow cover of Antarctica the volume of ice and snow over the past 30-40 years has raised. Scientists have developed a theory based on climatic factors from periods of solar activity, the reflectivity of the Earth.
In the early twentieth century astrophysicist M. Milankovitch investigated the cause of occurrence of ice ages on Earth. He established a correlation between the advent of a cold snap and the change in shape of the Earth’s orbit. Three positional cycles of various durations were identified that affect the Earth’s climate. According to Milankovitch’s cycles, the Earth is now in a relatively cool phase. Many modern studies of perennial ice confirm the theory of M. Milankovich.
There are several possible consequences of the onset of the Ice Age. Many areas will be unsuitable for living. The number of natural disasters will increase.
Climatic changes are characteristic of the history of the Earth. This is due to cosmic phenomena, geological activity, tectonic disturbances, human activity. Many specialists confirm that changes in climatic conditions are real at the present stage of development. Humanity must be prepared to withstand them. There are government programs for the sustainable development of countries in this direction. Implementation plans should be developed and implemented. Many countries have high hopes for young scientists and students.